Bacterial vaginosis epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [2]

Overview

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal symptoms among women; it is not clear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. The prevalence of BV in the United States is estimated to be 21.2 million (29.2%) among women ages 14–49.[1]

Epidemiology

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal symptoms among women, but it is not clear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. The prevalence in the United States is estimated to be 21.2 million (29.2%) among women ages 14–49.

Prevalence

A 2013 systematic review reported that BV prevalence varies between and within countries worldwide.[2][3]

  • In South and East Africa, higher rates of BV were estimated (68% in Mozambique, 51% in Lesotho, 44% in Kenya, 37% in Gambia)
  • In Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and Indonesia, the rates of BV were typically greater than 30%
  • In Norway (24%), Turkey (23%), and Poland (19%), women have moderately high BV rates
  • In Latin America and the Caribbean, lower rates of BV were estimated, except in rural and antenatal populations in Jamaica and Peru (~40%)

Race

The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies by race/ethnicity:[4]

  • African-American (51%)
  • Hispanic (32%)
  • Whites (23%)

Associated condition

Pregnancy

  • As many as one-third of all pregnant women in the United States have bacterial vaginosis.

Life time sexual partners

The prevalence of BV is associated with lifetime number of sexual partners:[5]

  • The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women with more than one sex partner in the previous 12 months (recent) and more than one lifetime sex partner was estimated to be 39.6%
  • The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women with no or one recent sex partner and more than one lifetime partner was estimated to be 29.1%
  • The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women with no or one sex partner in the last 12 months and one lifetime partner was estimated to be 22.4%
  • The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women who never had sex was estimated to be 18.8%

HIV Infection

The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is reportedly high among HIV-positive and infertile women.[6]

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Statisticshttp://www.cdc.gov/std/bv/stats.htm Accessed on October 18, 2016
  2. Nugent RP, Krohn MA, Hillier SL (1991). "Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation". J Clin Microbiol. 29 (2): 297–301. PMC 269757. PMID 1706728.
  3. Kenyon C, Colebunders R, Crucitti T (2013). "The global epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 209 (6): 505–23. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.05.006. PMID 23659989.
  4. Yen S, Shafer MA, Moncada J, Campbell CJ, Flinn SD, Boyer CB (2003). "Bacterial vaginosis in sexually experienced and non-sexually experienced young women entering the military". Obstet Gynecol. 102 (5 Pt 1): 927–33. PMID 14672465.
  5. The Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis in the United States, 2001–2004; Associations With Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Reproductive Health. http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/Fulltext/2007/11000/The_Prevalence_of_Bacterial_Vaginosis_in_the.6.aspx#
  6. Lallar M, Nanda S, Nandal R (2015). "Lower Genital Tract Infections in HIV-Infected Women: Can We Afford to Miss?". J Obstet Gynaecol India. 65 (1): 45–9. doi:10.1007/s13224-014-0604-6. PMC 4342383. PMID 25737622.

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