Autism historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

The first reported case of autism dates back to 1798, discovered by a medical student, Jean Itard, who treated the patient using a behavioral program. In 1943, Leo Kanner first described 11 cases of autism in his paper called autistic disturbances of affective contact. In 1910, Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist coined the term autism form latin word autismus. In 1981, Asperger was the first to separate Asperger syndrome, from autism.

Historical Perspective

  • The first reported case of autism dates back to 1798, discovered by a medical student, Jean Itard, who treated the patient using a behavioral program.[1]
  • In 1910, Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist coined the term autism form latin word autismus.[2][3]
  • In 1938, Hans Asperger of the Vienna University Hospital adopted Bleuler's terminology "autistic psychopaths" in a lecture in German about child psychology.[4]
Hans Asperger introduced the modern sense of the word autism in 1938.
  • In 1981, Asperger was the first to separate Asperger syndrome, from autism.[1]
  • In 1943, Leo Kanner first described 11 cases of autism in his paper called autistic disturbances of affective contact.[5][6]
Leo Kanner introduced the label early infantile autism in 1943.
  • In 1960, autism was established as a separate syndrome for the first time in medical history differentiating it from mental retardation and schizophrenia and from other developmental disorders.[7]
  • As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism; now it is thought to be one of the most heritable of all psychiatric conditions.[8][1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wolff S (2004). "The history of autism". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 13 (4): 201–8. doi:10.1007/s00787-004-0363-5. PMID 15365889.
  2. Kuhn R; tr. Cahn CH (2004). "Eugen Bleuler's concepts of psychopathology". Hist Psychiatry. 15 (3): 361–6. doi:10.1177/0957154X04044603. PMID 15386868. The quote is a translation of Bleuler's 1910 original.
  3. Wing L (1997). "The history of ideas on autism: legends, myths and reality". Autism. 1 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1177/1362361397011004.
  4. Asperger H (1938). "Das psychisch abnormale Kind". Wien Klin Wochenschr (in German). 51: 1314–7.
  5. Kanner L (1943). "Autistic disturbances of affective contact". Nerv Child. 2: 217–50. "Reprint". Acta Paedopsychiatr. 35 (4): 100–36. 1968. PMID 4880460. Unknown parameter |quotes= ignored (help)
  6. Lyons V, Fitzgerald M (2007). "Asperger (1906–1980) and Kanner (1894–1981), the two pioneers of autism". J Autism Dev Disord. 37 (10): 2022–3. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0383-3. PMID 17922179.
  7. Fombonne E (2003). "Modern views of autism". Can J Psychiatry. 48 (8): 503–5. PMID 14574825.
  8. Szatmari P, Jones MB (2007). "Genetic epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". In Volkmar FR. Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (2nd ed ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 157–78. ISBN 0521549574.



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