Asperger syndrome classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Classification

Asperger's syndrome is one of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are a spectrum of psychological conditions that are characterized by abnormalities of social interaction and communication that pervade the individual's functioning, and by restricted and repetitive interests and behavior. Like other psychological development disorders, ASD begins in infancy or childhood, has a steady course without remission or relapse, and has impairments that result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain.[1] ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as social deficits.[2] Of the other four ASD forms, autism is the most similar to AS in signs and likely causes but its diagnosis requires impaired communication and allows delay in cognitive development; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria for a more specific disorder are unmet.[3] The extent of the overlap between AS and high-functioning autism (HFA—autism unaccompanied by mental retardation) is unclear.Witwer AN, Lecavalier L (2008). "Examining the validity of autism spectrum disorder subtypes". J Autism Dev Disord. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0541-2. PMID 18327636. </ref>[4] The current ASD classification may not reflect the true nature of the conditions.[5]

References

  1. World Health Organization (2006). "F84. Pervasive developmental disorders". International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th ed. (ICD-10) ed.). Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  2. Piven J, Palmer P, Jacobi D, Childress D, Arndt S (1997). "Broader autism phenotype: evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families" (PDF). Am J Psychiatry. 154 (2): 185–90. PMID 9016266.
  3. Lord C, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Amaral DG (2000). "Autism spectrum disorders". Neuron. 28 (2): 355–63. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00115-X. PMID 11144346.
  4. Kasari C, Rotheram-Fuller E (2005). "Current trends in psychological research on children with high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder". Curr Opin Psychiatry. 18 (5): 497–501. PMID 16639107.
  5. Szatmari P (2000). "The classification of autism, Asperger's syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder". Can J Psychiatry. 45 (8): 731–38. PMID 11086556.

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