Aquatic respiration

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Aquatic respiration

Articles

Most recent articles on Aquatic respiration

Most cited articles on Aquatic respiration

Review articles on Aquatic respiration

Articles on Aquatic respiration in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Aquatic respiration

Images of Aquatic respiration

Photos of Aquatic respiration

Podcasts & MP3s on Aquatic respiration

Videos on Aquatic respiration

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Aquatic respiration

Bandolier on Aquatic respiration

TRIP on Aquatic respiration

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Aquatic respiration at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Aquatic respiration

Clinical Trials on Aquatic respiration at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Aquatic respiration

NICE Guidance on Aquatic respiration

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Aquatic respiration

CDC on Aquatic respiration

Books

Books on Aquatic respiration

News

Aquatic respiration in the news

Be alerted to news on Aquatic respiration

News trends on Aquatic respiration

Commentary

Blogs on Aquatic respiration

Definitions

Definitions of Aquatic respiration

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Aquatic respiration

Discussion groups on Aquatic respiration

Patient Handouts on Aquatic respiration

Directions to Hospitals Treating Aquatic respiration

Risk calculators and risk factors for Aquatic respiration

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Aquatic respiration

Causes & Risk Factors for Aquatic respiration

Diagnostic studies for Aquatic respiration

Treatment of Aquatic respiration

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Aquatic respiration

International

Aquatic respiration en Espanol

Aquatic respiration en Francais

Business

Aquatic respiration in the Marketplace

Patents on Aquatic respiration

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Aquatic respiration


Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.

Earth's natural bodies of water have a low oxygen concentration--much lower than the level of oxygen in air at the earth's surface. Smaller organisms can obtain sufficient oxygen through the skin (e.g. flatworms), but larger organisms require special structures to collect enough oxygen to sustain life.

Fish have developed gills for respiration which have:

The operculum in fish is a long bony cover for the gill that can be used for pushing water. Some fishes pump water using the operculum. Without an operculum, other methods are required, such as ventilation. Some species of sharks use this system. When they swim, water flows into the mouth and across the gills. Because these sharks rely on this technique, they must keep swimming in order to respire.

Bony fish use a type of countercurrent flow to maximize the intake of oxygen that diffuse through the gill. Countercurrent flow is when deoxygenated blood moves through gill in one direction while oxygenated water moves in the gill in the opposite direction. This mechanism maintains the concentration gradient and increasing the efficiency of the respiration process as well. Cartilaginous fish do not have a countercurrent flow system as they lack bones which are needed to have the opened out gill that a bony fishes have.

This oxygen comes from molecules of oxygen gas (O2) dissolved in the water. The oxygen atom present in the water molecule (H2O) is not suitable for respiration.


Linked-in.jpg