Aphthous ulcer pathophysiology
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The exact pathophysiology of aphthous ulcer is not fully understood. The pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous ulcer is varies based on underlying medical conditions. The exact pathogenesis of aphthous ulcer is not fully understood. It is thought that aphthous ulcer is the result of the cross reactivity theory between microbial antigens and mitrocondrial heat shock protein, dysembryoplastic theory, histopathogenesis of glandular cells in myxoma or the thrombotic theory.
The exact pathophysiology of aphthous ulcers is not fully understood. It is thought that the pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous ulcer is varies based on underlying medical conditions.
- Trauma to the mouth is the most common trigger of aphthous ulcers. It is thought Physical trauma can result in mouth ulcers by breaking the mucous membrane.
- The exact pathogenesis of aphthous ulcer caused by microbial factors is not fully understood. It is thought that oral mucosal damage in aphthous ulcer is caused by either direct pathogenic invasion or by cross-reactivity between microbial antigens and mitrocondrial 60kDa Heat shock protein (HSP60). This cross-reactivity may lead to T-cell mediated response to the antigens and result in mucosal damage.
Abnormal Immunologic Response
Abnormal immunological responds also considered as a viable theory in pathogenesis of aphthous stomatitis.
- The exact pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous ulcer in patients with abnormal immunologic responds is not fully understood. It is thought abnormality in immunologic response may result in aphthous ulcer by following mechanisms:
- It is though that recurrent aphthous ulcer in Behcet syndrome may be caused by abnormal inflammatory respond in patients. Abnormal Inflammatory respond in patient with behcet syndrome is mediated by T lymphocytes and plasma cells.
HIV infected individuals
- The exact pathogenesis of aphthous ulcer in HIV is remain unclear. Aphthous ulceration may occasionally arise in HIV disease as a initial finding. However, it can be a common finding in AIDS patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 100cells/mm3. 
- The exact pathogenesis of aphthous ulcer in Crohn’s disease is not fully understood. It is though aphthous ulcer in patients with Crohn’s disease is a result of inflammation of salivary glands.
- There is a commonly held belief that another cause of aphthous ulcers is gluten intolerance (Celiac disease), whereby consumption of wheat, rye, barley and sometimes oats can result in chronic mouth ulcers. However, two small studies of patients with Celiac disease have demonstrated no link between the disease and Aphthous ulcers. If patients with Aphthous ulcers do happen to have gluten intolerance, they may experience benefit in eliminating breads, pastas, cakes, pies, scones, biscuits, beers and so on from their diet and substituting gluten-free varieties where available.
- Systemic disease
- Human leukocyte antigen haplotypes (HLA B51)
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