Aortic stenosis gross pathology

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Aortic Stenosis Microchapters

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Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Acquired:
Rheumatic Aortic Stenosis
Congenital:
Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis
Subaortic Stenosis
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis
Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis
Stages
Low Flow, Low Gradient Aortic Stenosis

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Aortic Stenosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Cardiac Stress Test

Electrocardiogram

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Echocardiography

Cardiac Catheterization

Aortic Valve Area

Aortic Valve Area Calculation

Treatment

General Approach

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvotomy (PABV) or Aortic Valvuloplasty

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

TAVR vs SAVR
Critical Pathway
Patient Selection
Imaging
Evaluation
Valve Types
TAVR Procedure
Post TAVR management
AHA/ACC Guideline Recommendations

Follow Up

Prevention

Precautions and Prophylaxis

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Aortic stenosis gross pathology On the Web

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editors-In-Chief: Claudia P. Hochberg, M.D. [2], Abdul-Rahman Arabi, M.D. [3], Keri Shafer, M.D. [4], Priyamvada Singh, MBBS [5], Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S[6]; Assistant Editor-In-Chief: Kristin Feeney, B.S. [7]

Overview

Gross anatomy dissection may be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of aortic stenosis. Common findings associated with aortic stenosis include left ventricular hypertrophy and heart block.

Pathological Findings

Pathological findings of congenital or acquired aortic stenosis in adults results in thickening and calcification of aortic valve. Following patterns may be seen:[1]

  • Calcified bicuspid valve involving anterior or posterior cusps
  • Calcified aortic valve cusps with fusion of commissures seen in post rheumatic cases
  • Degenerative calcific aortic stenosis which shows sinuses of valsalva filled with calcium deposits seen in age >70

Images shown below are courtesy of Professor Peter Anderson DVM PhD and published with permission. © PEIR, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology

References

  1. Normand J, Loire R, Zambartas C (1988). "The anatomical aspects of adult aortic stenosis". Eur Heart J. 9 Suppl E: 31–6. PMID 3402479.


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