Aortic stenosis epidemiology and demographics

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Overview

Classification

Acquired:
Rheumatic Aortic Stenosis
Congenital:
Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis
Subaortic Stenosis
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis
Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis
Stages
Low Flow, Low Gradient Aortic Stenosis

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Aortic Stenosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

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Aortic Valve Area

Aortic Valve Area Calculation

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Medical Therapy

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Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvotomy (PABV) or Aortic Valvuloplasty

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

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TAVR Procedure
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Mohammed A. Sbeih, M.D. [2]; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [3]; Usama Talib, BSc, MD [4] Assistant Editor-In-Chief: Kristin Feeney, B.S. [5]

Overview

Aortic stenosis is a major health problem that primarily affects the elderly. The majority of cases of aortic stenosis is due to calcific degeneration. Aortic stenosis tends to affect approximately 1% of patients over the age of 65, 2% of patients over the age of 75, and 4% of patients over the age 85.[1] As North American and European populations continue to live longer, aortic stenosis has major public health implications. Abnormalities of aortic valve morphology and function represent the most common cardiac-valve lesion in the elderly.[2]

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

According to the Cardiovascular Health Study, the prevalence of aortic stenosis among patients more than 65 years of age is approximately 2% in the United States.[1] Based on the results from the EuroHeart Failure survey programme, 4.8% of patients with acute coronary syndrome had significant valve disease, in particular calcific aortic stenosis.[3]

Age

The prevalence of aortic stenosis increases with age. Less than 1% of all live births exhibit symptoms of severe aortic stenosis. Approximately 1% of patients over the age of 65, 2% of patients over the age of 75, and 4% of patients over the age of 85 have aortic stenosis.[1][4]

Gender

Calcific degenerative aortic stenosis is more common in males.[5]

Developed Countries

In North America and Europe, a linear relationship exists between the increase in the incidence of aortic stenosis and the increase in aging population.[6]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Stewart BF, Siscovick D, Lind BK, Gardin JM, Gottdiener JS, Smith VE, Kitzman DW, Otto CM (1997). "Clinical factors associated with calcific aortic valve disease. Cardiovascular Health Study". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 29 (3): 630–4. PMID 9060903. Retrieved 2012-04-11. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Iivanainen AM, Lindroos M, Tilvis R, Heikkilä J, Kupari M (1996). "Natural history of aortic valve stenosis of varying severity in the elderly". Am J Cardiol. 78 (1): 97–101. PMID 8712130.
  3. Cleland JG, Swedberg K, Follath F, Komajda M, Cohen-Solal A, Aguilar JC, Dietz R, Gavazzi A, Hobbs R, Korewicki J, Madeira HC, Moiseyev VS, Preda I, van Gilst WH, Widimsky J, Freemantle N, Eastaugh J, Mason J (2003). "The EuroHeart Failure survey programme-- a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 1: patient characteristics and diagnosis". European Heart Journal. 24 (5): 442–63. PMID 12633546. Retrieved 2012-04-11. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Lindroos M, Kupari M, Heikkilä J, Tilvis R (1993). "Prevalence of aortic valve abnormalities in the elderly: an echocardiographic study of a random population sample". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 21 (5): 1220–5. PMID 8459080. Retrieved 2012-04-11. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Townsend CM, et al. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. Saunders; 2008:1841-1844.
  6. Otto CM, Prendergast B (2014). "Aortic-valve stenosis--from patients at risk to severe valve obstruction". N Engl J Med. 371 (8): 744–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1313875. PMID 25140960.


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