Aortic regurgitation precautions

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S. [2]; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [3]; Mohammed A. Sbeih, M.D. [4]

Overview

Aortic stenosis of any etiology is associated with a higher rate of infection of the stenosed valve, i.e. infective endocarditis.[1] The American Heart Association recommended that prophylaxis against infective endocarditis be limited only to patients with either prosthetic heart valves, previous episode(s) of endocarditis, or with certain types of congenital heart disease.[2] Patients with severe aortic stenosis should avoid strenuous exercise and any exercise that greatly increases afterload such as weight lifting.

Antibiotic Prophylaxis

To reduce the risk of developing infective endocarditis among high-risk patients, antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered prior to certain dental/medical/surgical procedures. Such procedures may include dental extraction, deep scaling of the teeth, gum surgery, dental implants, treatment of esophageal varices, dilation of esophageal strictures, gastrointestinal surgery where the intestinal mucosa will be disrupted, prostate surgery, urethral stricture dilation, and cystoscopy. Note that routine upper and lower GI endoscopy (i.e. gastroscopy and colonoscopy), with or without biopsy, are not usually considered indications for antibiotic prophylaxis.

Not withstanding the foregoing, the American Heart Association has recently changed its recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis. Specifically, as of 2007, it is recommended that such prophylaxis be limited only to:[2]

References

  1. Michel PL, Acar J (1995). "Native cardiac disease predisposing to infective endocarditis". Eur Heart J. 16 Suppl B: 2–6. PMID 7671919.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "www.heart.org". Retrieved 2013-01-09.


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