Aortic regurgitation differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Usama Talib, BSc, MD [2]


The differential diagnosis of aortic regurgitation includes other valvular abnormalities and diseases that can cause a similar clinical presentation.

Differential Diagnosis

The heart murmur of aortic regurgitation must be differentiated from that of other valvular diseases. Acute aortic regurgitation (AR) is characterized by the presence of a low pitched early diastolic murmur that is best heard at the right 2nd intercostal space, decreased or absent S1, and increased P2. Chronic AR is characterized by the presence of a high pitched holodiastolic decrescendo murmur that is best heard at the upper left sternal border and that increases with sitting forward, expiration, and handgrip.

The differential diagnosis of aortic regurgitation includes other valvular abnormalities:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Aortic regurgitation should also be differentiated from other diseases that might cause similar clinical presentation, such as:[7][8][9][10]


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  6. Roguin A, Rinkevich D, Milo S, Markiewicz W, Reisner SA (1998). "Long-term follow-up of patients with severe rheumatic tricuspid stenosis". Am Heart J. 136 (1): 103–8. PMID 9665226.
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  8. Elkayam U, Goland S, Pieper PG, Silverside CK (2016). "High-Risk Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy: Part I." J Am Coll Cardiol. 68 (4): 396–410. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.048. PMID 27443437.
  9. Lozano HF, Sharma CN (2004). "Reversible pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid regurgitation and right-sided heart failure associated with hyperthyroidism: case report and review of the literature". Cardiol Rev. 12 (6): 299–305. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000137259.83169.e3. PMID 15476566.
  10. Anand IS (2016). "High-Output Heart Failure Revisited". J Am Coll Cardiol. 68 (5): 483–6. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.036. PMID 27470456.