Aortic regurgitation causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.; Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [3]; Usama Talib, BSc, MD [4]

Overview

Aortic insufficiency can be an acute illness or a chronic illness and the causes differ depending upon the acuity of the disease. In general, aortic insufficiency is due to abnormalities of the aortic valve itself or the aortic root. Aortic regurgitation secondary to dilation of the ascending aorta has overtaken the valvular aortic disease as the most common cause of aortic regurgitation.[1]

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Location of the Abnormality

The cause of Aortic Regurgitation by location can be classified as following:[2]

Causes Based Upon Abnormalities in the Aortic Valve

Causes Based Upon Abnormalities in the Ascending Aorta

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Annuloaortic ectasia, aortic valvuloplasty, aortic dissection, arterial tortuosity syndrome, bacterial endocarditis, balloon valvotomy, bicuspid aortic valve, congenitally fenestrated cusp rupture, cystic medial necrosis, hypertension, marantic endocarditis, prosthetic valve dysfunction, senile aortic ectasia and dilation, senile or degenerative calcific aortic valve disease, sinus of valsalva aneurysm, subaortic stenosis, syphilitic aortitis, subpulmonic ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, thoracic aortic aneurysm, unicuspid aortic valve, ventricular septal defect
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic Psoriatic arthritis
Drug Side Effect Cabergoline, dexfenfluramine, dopamine agonists, fenfluramine, methysergide, pergolide, phentermine
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Acromegaly
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Whipple disease
Genetic Ankylosing spondylitis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, bicuspid aortic valve, Down syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Hurler syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, mucolipidosis II alpha/beta, mucolipidosis III gamma, mucopolysaccharidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler/Scheie syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, rheumatoid arthritis, Scheie syndrome, Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome, truncus arteriosus, Turner's syndrome, unicuspid aortic valve
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Aortic valvuloplasty, balloon valvotomy, double switch operation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, radiation, Senning-Rastelli procedure
Infectious Disease Bacterial endocarditis, perivalvular abscess, Q fever, rheumatic fever, syphilis, syphilitic aortitis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Ankylosing spondylitis, collagen vascular disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's Syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta, mucolipidosis III gamma
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Ankylosing spondylitis, antiphospholipid syndrome, Bechterew's disease, Behcet disease, collagen vascular disease, cystic medial necrosis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, giant cell arteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Marfan syndrome, myxomatous aortic valve, osteogenesis imperfecta, polychondritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, Reiter's syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, spondyloarthropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, Takayasu arteritis, ulcerative colitis, Whipple disease
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Chest trauma, traumatic aortic rupture
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Causes of Aortic Insufficiency as of Type of Onset

Causes of Acute Aortic Insufficiency

The causes of Acute Aortic Insufficiency include the following:[30][31][32][10]

Causes of Chronic Aortic Insufficiency

The cause of Chronic Aortic Insufficiency include the following:[2][36]

References

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Enriquez-Sarano M, Tajik AJ (2004). "Clinical practice. Aortic regurgitation". N Engl J Med. 351 (15): 1539–46. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp030912. PMID 15470217.
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  24. Lamanna, A.; Fayers, T.; Clarke, S.; Parsonage, W. (2013). "Valvular and aortic diseases in osteogenesis imperfecta". Heart Lung Circ. 22 (10): 801–10. doi:10.1016/j.hlc.2013.05.640. PMID 23791715. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
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  38. Friedman T, Mani A, Elefteriades JA. Bicuspid aortic valve: clinical approach and scientific review of a common clinical entity. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. Feb 2008;6(2):235-48.
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