Aortic dissection secondary prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2]; Hardik Patel, M.D.

Overview

Proper treatment and control of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure may reduce risk of aortic dissection. It is very important for patients at risk for dissection to tightly control their blood pressure. Taking safety precautions to prevent injuries can help prevent dissections. Many cases of aortic dissection cannot be prevented. If diagnosed with Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, regular follow-up is advisable.

2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Thoracic Aortic Disease (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Blood Pressure Control (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Class I
"1. Antihypertensive therapy should be administered to hypertensive patients with thoracic aortic diseases to achieve a goal of less than 140/90 mm Hg (patients without diabetes) or less than 130/80 mm Hg (patients with diabetes or chronic renal disease) to reduce the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. (Level of Evidence: B)"

Dyslipidemia Treatment (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Class IIa
"1. Treatment with a statin to achieve a target LDL cholesterol of less than 70 mg/dL is reasonable for patients with a coronary heart disease risk equivalent such as non coronary atherosclerotic disease, atherosclerotic aortic aneurysm, and coexistent coronary heart disease at high risk for coronary ischemic events.[2][3][4][5] (Level of Evidence: A)"

Smoking Cessation (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Class I
"1. Smoking cessation and avoidance of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work and home are recommended. Follow-up, referral to special programs, and/or pharmacotherapy (including nicotine replacement, buproprion, or varenicline) is useful, as is adopting a stepwise strategy aimed at smoking cessation (the 5 As are Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange). (Level of Evidence: B)"

Employment and Lifestyle in Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Class IIa
"1. For patients with a current thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection, or previously repaired aortic dissection, employment and lifestyle restrictions are reasonable, including the avoidance of strenuous lifting, pushing, or straining that would require a Valsalva maneuver. (Level of Evidence: C)"

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Hiratzka LF, Bakris GL, Beckman JA, Bersin RM, Carr VF, Casey DE; et al. (2010). "2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with Thoracic Aortic Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine". Circulation. 121 (13): e266–369. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181d4739e. PMID 20233780.
  2. Evans J, Powell JT, Schwalbe E, Loftus IM, Thompson MM (2007). "Simvastatin attenuates the activity of matrix metalloprotease-9 in aneurysmal aortic tissue". Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 34 (3): 302–3. doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2007.04.011. PMID 17574455. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Leurs LJ, Visser P, Laheij RJ, Buth J, Harris PL, Blankensteijn JD (2006). "Statin use is associated with reduced all-cause mortality after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair". Vascular. 14 (1): 1–8. PMID 16849016.
  4. Kurzencwyg D, Filion KB, Pilote L; et al. (2006). "Cardiac medical therapy among patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair". Ann Vasc Surg. 20 (5): 569–76. doi:10.1007/s10016-006-9078-z. PMID 16794911. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Yilmaz MB, Biyikoglu SF, Guray Y; et al. (2004). "Level of awareness of on-treatment patients about prescribed statins". Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 18 (5): 399–404. doi:10.1007/s10557-005-5065-9. PMID 15717143. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)


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