Aortic dissection risk factors
Aortic dissection Microchapters
Aortic dissection risk factors On the Web
Common risk factors in the development of aortic dissection include aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and trauma. Less common risk factors include bicuspid aortic valve, cocaine abuse, coarctation of the aorta, cystic medial necrosis, a history of collagen vascular disoders, giant cell arteritis, heart surgery, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Turner's syndrome, tertiary syphilis and the third trimester of pregnancy.
- Aging with the highest incidence in individuals who are 50 to 70 years old
- Atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors like diabetes
- Bicuspid aortic valve especially important in ascending aorta dissection
- Chest trauma including blunt trauma and iatrogenic (for example during cardiac catheterization or due to an intra-aortic balloon pump)
- Coarctation of the aorta
Less Common Risk Factors
- Cocaine abuse
- Cystic medial necrosis
- Deceleration trauma most commonly causes aortic rupture, not dissection
- A history of collagen vascular disorders such as:
- Familial hypercholesterolemia
- Giant cell arteritis
- Heart surgery particularly aortic valve replacement
- Hypertension most frequently in those with type III dissection
- Male gender
- Preexisting aortic aneurysm
- Preexisting aortic valve disease
- Prior aortic aneurysm repair
- Prior aortic dissection
- Prior aortic dissection repair
- Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
- Tertiary syphilis
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Third trimester of pregnancy
- Turner's syndrome due to aortic root dilatation in this syndrome
- Vasculitis (inflammation (rarely)
2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease (DO NOT EDIT)
Estimation of Pretest Risk of Thoracic Aortic Dissection (DO NOT EDIT)
|"1. Providers should routinely evaluate any patient presenting with complaints that may represent acute thoracic aortic dissection to establish a pretest risk of disease that can then be used to guide diagnostic decisions. This process should include specific questions about medical history, family history, and pain features as well as a focused examination to identify findings that are associated with aortic dissection, including:|
|a. High-risk conditions and historical features (Level of Evidence: B):
|b. High-risk chest, back, or abdominal pain features(Level of Evidence: B):|
|c. High-risk examination features (Level of Evidence: B):|
|"2. Patients presenting with sudden onset of severe chest, back, and/or abdominal pain, particularly those less than 40 years of age, should be questioned about a history and examined for physical features of Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Turner syndrome, or other connective tissue disorders associated with thoracic aortic disease. (Level of Evidence: B)"|
|"3. Patients presenting with sudden onset of severe chest, back, and/or abdominal pain should be questioned about a history of aortic pathology in immediate family members as there is a strong familial component to acute thoracic aortic disease. (Level of Evidence: B)"|
|"4. Patients presenting with sudden onset of severe chest, back, and/or abdominal pain should be questioned about recent aortic manipulation (surgical or catheter-based) or a known history of aortic valvular disease, as these factors predispose to acute aortic dissection. (Level of Evidence: C)"|
|"5. In patients with suspected or confirmed aortic dissection who have experienced a syncopal episode, a focused examination should be performed to identify associated neurologic injury or the presence of pericardial tamponade. (Level of Evidence: C)"|
|"6. All patients presenting with acute neurologic complaints should be questioned about the presence of chest, back, and/or abdominal pain and checked for peripheral pulse deficits as patients with dissection related neurologic pathology are less likely to report thoracic pain than the typical aortic dissection patient.|
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