Anti-cardiolipin antibodies

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Overview

schematic representation of antibody.

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases including syphilis[1], antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome[2], idiopathic spontaneous abortion,[3] and systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).[4] They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody. In SLE, The anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin act independently.[5] In rheumatoid arthritis[6] w/systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)[7] these antibodies may tie two conditions together.

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies come can be classified in two ways.

Apolipoprotein H involvement

β2-glycoprotein I has been identified as Apolipoprotein H and is required for the recognition of ACA in autoimmune disease.[8] Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with increased thrombosis.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Tringali GR, Julian AJ, Halbert WM (1969). "Effect of 2-mercaptoethanol treatment on anticardiolipin reactivity in sera from syphilitics and false positive reactors". The British journal of venereal diseases. 45 (3): 202–4. PMID 5346419. 
  2. Hull RG, Harris EN, Gharavi AE; et al. (1984). "Anticardiolipin antibodies: occurrence in Behçet's syndrome". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 43 (5): 746–8. PMID 6497467. 
  3. Petri M, Golbus M, Anderson R, Whiting-O'Keefe Q, Corash L, Hellmann D (1987). "Antinuclear antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibody in women with idiopathic habitual abortion. A controlled, prospective study of forty-four women". Arthritis Rheum. 30 (6): 601–6. PMID 3111489. 
  4. Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Boey ML; et al. (1983). "Anticardiolipin antibodies: detection by radioimmunoassay and association with thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus". Lancet. 2 (8361): 1211–4. PMID 6139567. 
  5. Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Loizou S; et al. (1985). "Crossreactivity of antiphospholipid antibodies". Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology. 16 (1): 1–6. PMID 3981615. 
  6. Keane A, Woods R, Dowding V, Roden D, Barry C (1987). "Anticardiolipin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis". Br. J. Rheumatol. 26 (5): 346–50. PMID 3664159. 
  7. Malia RG, Greaves M, Rowlands LM; et al. (1988). "Anticardiolipin antibodies in systemic sclerosis: immunological and clinical associations". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 73 (3): 456–60. PMID 2974767. 
  8. McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1990). "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (11): 4120–4. PMID 2349221. 

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