Amenorrhea natural history, complications and prognosis

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Primary amenorrhea
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Eiman Ghaffarpasand, M.D. [2]

Overview

If left untreated, patients with amenorrhea may progress to develop infertility and osteoporosis. Common complications of amenorrhea are based on underlying disorder that induce amenorrhea. Prognosis is generally excellent and the mortality rate of patients with amenorrhea is approximately less than 1%, generally in patients with brain lesions.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

Complications

Prognosis

References

  1. Palomba S, Santagni S, Falbo A, La Sala GB (2015). "Complications and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: current perspectives". Int J Womens Health. 7: 745–63. PMC 4527566Freely accessible. PMID 26261426. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S70314. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Meczekalski B, Katulski K, Czyzyk A, Podfigurna-Stopa A, Maciejewska-Jeske M (2014) Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its influence on women's health. J Endocrinol Invest 37 (11):1049-56. DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0169-3 PMID: 25201001
  3. Vegetti W, Marozzi A, Manfredini E, Testa G, Alagna F, Nicolosi A, Caliari I, Taborelli M, Tibiletti MG, Dalprà L, Crosignani PG (2000). "Premature ovarian failure". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 161 (1-2): 53–7. PMID 10773392. 
  4. Mattei AM, Severini V, Crosignani PG (1991). "Natural history of hyperprolactinemia". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 626: 130–6. PMID 2058949. 
  5. Sanfilippo JS (1999). "Implications of not treating hyperprolactinemia". J Reprod Med. 44 (12 Suppl): 1111–5. PMID 10649820. 
  6. "Premature ovarian failure - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic". 
  7. Nelson LM (2009). "Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency.". N Engl J Med. 360 (6): 606–14. PMC 2762081Freely accessible. PMID 19196677. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp0808697. 
  8. Hart R (2007). "Polycystic ovarian syndrome--prognosis and treatment outcomes". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 19 (6): 529–35. PMID 18007129. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3282f10e22. 
  9. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/endocrine/prolactinoma/Pages/fact-sheet.aspx



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