Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Home logo1.png

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mazia Fatima, MBBS [2]

Overview

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency has to be differentiated from other conditions with similar presentation like autoimmune hepatitis, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, emphysema, primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener Syndrome), viral hepatitis.

Differentiating Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency from Other Diseases

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency presents with symptoms of emphysema associated with compromised liver function tests and/or cirrhosis. Differential diagnosis of jaundice and RUQ pain includes:

Jaundice and RUQ pain differential diagnosis are:

Classification of jaundice based on etiology Disease History and clinical manifestations Diagnosis
Lab Findings Other blood tests Other diagnostic
Family history Fever RUQ Pain Pruritis Hepatomegaly AST ALT ALK BLR Indirect BLR Direct Viral serology
Jaundice Hepatocellular Jaundice Hemochromatosis + - -/+ - + ↑/N ↑/N N - Ferritin Liver biopsy
Wilson's disease + - -/+ - + N ↑/N N - Serum cerulloplasmin Liver biopsy
Alcoholic hepatitis - -/+ -/+ - + ↑↑ N ↑/N N - - -
Cirrhosis -/+ -/+ -/+ - -/+ ↑/N ↑/N ↑/N -/+ Thrombocytopenia hypotrophied liver on ultrasound
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency + -/+ -/+ - + ↑/N ↑/N ↑/N - Serum alpha1-antitrypsin levels decreased Hepatomegaly on CT
Cholestatic Jaundice Common bile duct stone -/+ - + + -/+ N N N - Dilated ducts on sonography CT/ERCP
Hepatitis A cholestatic type - -/+ + + -/+ N N N + HAV- AB Abdominal ultrasound
EBV / CMV hepatitis - -/+ + + -/+ N N N + Positive serology
Primary biliary cirrhosis -/+ - -/+ + -/+ N/↑ N/↑ N - AMA positive Liver biopsy
Primary sclerosing cholangitis -/+ - -/+ + -/+ N/↑ N/↑ N - Beading on MRCP Liver biopsy
Pancreatic carcinoma + - -/+ - -/+ N/↑ N/↑ N - Mass on ultrasound CT scan for diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain are:

Classification of jaundice based on etiology Disease History and clinical manifestations Diagnosis
Lab Findings Other blood tests Other diagnostic
Family history Fever RUQ Pain Pruritis Hepatomegaly AST ALT ALK BLR Indirect BLR Direct Viral serology
Jaundice Hepatocellular Jaundice Alcoholic hepatitis - -/+ -/+ - + ↑↑ N ↑/N N - - -
Cirrhosis -/+ -/+ -/+ - -/+ ↑/N ↑/N ↑/N -/+ Thrombocytopenia Small liver on ultrasound
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency + -/+ -/+ - + ↑/N ↑/N ↑/N - Serum alpha1-antitrypsin levels decreased Hepatomegaly on CT
Cholestatic Jaundice Hepatitis A cholestatic type - -/+ + + -/+ N N N + HAV- AB Abdominal ultrasound
EBV / CMV hepatitis - -/+ + + -/+ N N N + Positive serology PCR or ELISA

Differential diagnosis of cough with wheezes is :

Diseases Symptoms Signs Diagosis
Fever Cough Chest pain Wheezes Crackles Tachypnea Lab tests Imaging
Asthma - Dry/Productive - + - +
  • CT scan shows:
    • Dilated bronchi.
    • Bronchial wall thickening.
    • Air trapping.
Bronchiolitis +/- Dry - + + +/-
COPD + Productive - + + +
Bacterial pneumonia + Productive + + + +/-
Cystic Fibrosis +/- Productive +/- - - + Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction evidenced by : X-ray :

Hyperinflation presents as:

  • Anterior bowing of the infant sternum.
  • Increased retrosternal air space.
  • Generalized pulmonary overinflation.
  • Multiple nodular densities represent mucus plugging and may present in finger-in-glove shape or as a combination of V- or Y-shaped branching and bandlike shadows.

Abdominal findings include dilated multiple loops of the small bowel are seen in neonatal meconium ileus.

Emphysema +/- Productive - + +/- + Chest X-ray reveals signs of emphysema include:
  • Increased retrosternal air space (see on lateral chest films).
  • A long narrow heart shadow.
  • Tapering vascular shadows.
  • Hyperlucency of the lungs.
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Kartagener Syndrome) +/- Productive - + + + Chest X-ray reveals :
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency +/- Productive - + + + Chest X-ray Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) emphysema presents as:
  • a hyperlucent appearance because healthy tissue has been destroyed.
  • Affected regions also are described as oligemic because they lack the normal rich pattern of branching blood vessels.
  • An unusual characteristic in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency is found in about 60% of PiZZ patients is a striking basilar distribution.
  • In contrast, cigarette smoking is associated with more severe apical disease.

AATD can present as neonatal jaundice. The differential diagnosis for neonatal jaundice is: [3]

Etiology Of Neonatal Jaundice History and clinical manifestations Diagnosis
Lab Findings Other blood tests Other diagnostic
Family history Fever RUQ Pain Pruritis AST ALT ALK BLR Indirect BLR Direct Viral serology
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency + -/+ -/+ - N - Genetic testing Liver biopsy
Breast feeding failure jaundice - - - - - - - - - - -
Breast Milk Jaundice - - - - - - - - - - -
Crigler-Najjar type 2 + - - - N N N - Genetic testing
Gilbert Syndrome + - - - N N N - Genetic testing
Rotor syndrome + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing Liver biopsy
Dubin-Johnson syndrome + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing Liver biopsy
Hereditory spherocytosis + - -/+ - N N N N - Genetic testing Osmotic fragility
G6PD deficiency + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing
Thalassemia + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing
Sickle cell disease + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing
Immune hemolysis - -/+ - - N N N N - Autoantibodies

References

  1. Ghanei M, Tazelaar HD, Chilosi M, Harandi AA, Peyman M, Akbari HM; et al. (2008). "An international collaborative pathologic study of surgical lung biopsies from mustard gas-exposed patients". Respir Med. 102 (6): 825–30. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2008.01.016. PMID 18339530.
  2. Lazović B, Svenda MZ, Mazić S, Stajić Z, Delić M (2013). "Analysis of electrocardiogram in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients". Med Pregl. 66 (3–4): 126–9. PMID 23653989.
  3. Fargo MV, Grogan SP, Saguil A (2017). "Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults". Am Fam Physician. 95 (3): 164–168. PMID 28145671.



Linked-in.jpg