Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency CT

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mazia Fatima, MBBS [2]

Overview

On high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan of the chest alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency presents as hypoattenuated areas resulting from a lack of lung tissue. As tissue is lost, pulmonary vessels appear smaller, fewer in number, and spread farther apart. Mild forms of alpha1-antitrypsin disease can be missed on HRCT scanning. However, when the disease is moderate, there is panlobular and characteristic lower zone predominance. Severe forms vary from severe centrilobular emphysema. Normal lung structures have been replaced by abnormal airspaces. CT of abdomen may show hepatomegaly or changes associated with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

CT

On High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan of the chest:[1]

Emphysematous changes with lower lobe predominance.Case courtesy of Dr Yune Kwong, <a href="https://radiopaedia.org/">Radiopaedia.org</a>. From the case <a href="https://radiopaedia.org/cases/30763">rID: 30763</a>

References

  1. Guest PJ, Hansell DM (1992). "High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in emphysema associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency". Clin Radiol. 45 (4): 260–6. PMID 1395384.



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