Alkalosis

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List of terms related to Alkalosis

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Alkalosis refers to a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia) through the loss of acids or retention of bicarbonate. Generally alkalosis is said to occur when pH of the blood exceeds 7.45. The opposite condition is acidosis.

Classification

More specifically, alkalosis can refer to:

Causes

Common Causes

The main cause of respiratory alkalosis is hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related consumption of bicarbonate, both of which would lower blood pH.

Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by prolonged vomitting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid with the stomach content. Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and visa versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions.

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Metabolic Alkalosis

References

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