Alcoholic liver disease risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: M. Khurram Afzal, MD [2]

Overview

The most potent risk factor in the development of alcoholic liver disease is alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include female gender, hispanic ethnicity, and genetic factors.

Risk Factors

The most potent risk factor in the development of alcoholic liver disease is the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include gender, age, and genetic factors.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

References

  1. Bertola A, Park O, Gao B (2013). "Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding synergistically induces neutrophil infiltration and liver injury in mice: a critical role for E-selectin.". Hepatology. 58 (5): 1814–23. PMC 3726575Freely accessible. PMID 23532958. doi:10.1002/hep.26419. 
  2. Anstee QM, Daly AK, Day CP (2011). "Genetics of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.". Semin Liver Dis. 31 (2): 128–46. PMID 21538280. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1276643. 
  3. Altamirano J, Bataller R (2010). "Cigarette smoking and chronic liver diseases.". Gut. 59 (9): 1159–62. PMID 20650922. doi:10.1136/gut.2008.162453. 
  4. Hatton J, Burton A, Nash H, Munn E, Burgoyne L, Sheron N (2009). "Drinking patterns, dependency and life-time drinking history in alcohol-related liver disease.". Addiction. 104 (4): 587–92. PMID 19215600. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02493.x. 
  5. Clouston AD, Jonsson JR, Powell EE (2007). "Steatosis as a cofactor in other liver diseases: hepatitis C virus, alcohol, hemochromatosis, and others.". Clin Liver Dis. 11 (1): 173–89, x. PMID 17544978. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2007.02.007. 
  6. Bataller R, North KE, Brenner DA (2003). "Genetic polymorphisms and the progression of liver fibrosis: a critical appraisal.". Hepatology. 37 (3): 493–503. PMID 12601343. doi:10.1053/jhep.2003.50127. 
  7. Stewart SH (2002). "Racial and ethnic differences in alcohol-associated aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase elevation.". Arch Intern Med. 162 (19): 2236–9. PMID 12390068. 
  8. Naveau S, Giraud V, Borotto E, Aubert A, Capron F, Chaput JC (1997). "Excess weight risk factor for alcoholic liver disease.". Hepatology. 25 (1): 108–11. PMID 8985274. doi:10.1002/hep.510250120. 
  9. Becker U, Deis A, Sørensen TI, Grønbaek M, Borch-Johnsen K, Müller CF; et al. (1996). "Prediction of risk of liver disease by alcohol intake, sex, and age: a prospective population study.". Hepatology. 23 (5): 1025–9. PMID 8621128. doi:10.1002/hep.510230513. 
  10. Lee WM, Squires RH, Nyberg SL, Doo E, Hoofnagle JH (2008). "Acute liver failure: Summary of a workshop.". Hepatology. 47 (4): 1401–15. PMC 3381946Freely accessible. PMID 18318440. doi:10.1002/hep.22177. 
  11. Reuben A, Koch DG, Lee WM, Acute Liver Failure Study Group (2010). "Drug-induced acute liver failure: results of a U.S. multicenter, prospective study.". Hepatology. 52 (6): 2065–76. PMC 3992250Freely accessible. PMID 20949552. doi:10.1002/hep.23937. 
  12. Levy R, Catana AM, Durbin-Johnson B, Halsted CH, Medici V (2015). "Ethnic differences in presentation and severity of alcoholic liver disease". Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 39 (3): 566–574. PMC 4348235Freely accessible. PMID 25702770. doi:10.1111/acer.12660. 
  13. Anstee QM, Seth D, Day CP (2016). "Genetic Factors That Affect Risk of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease". Gastroenterology. 150 (8): 1728–1744.e7. PMID 26873399. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2016.01.037. 



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