Adalimumab

Jump to: navigation, search
Adalimumab
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sheng Shi, M.D. [2]

Disclaimer

WikiDoc MAKES NO GUARANTEE OF VALIDITY. WikiDoc is not a professional health care provider, nor is it a suitable replacement for a licensed healthcare provider. WikiDoc is intended to be an educational tool, not a tool for any form of healthcare delivery. The educational content on WikiDoc drug pages is based upon the FDA package insert, National Library of Medicine content and practice guidelines / consensus statements. WikiDoc does not promote the administration of any medication or device that is not consistent with its labeling. Please read our full disclaimer here.

Black Box Warning

WARNING: SERIOUS INFECTIONS AND MALIGNANCY
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
SERIOUS INFECTIONS (5.1, 6.1):

Increased risk of serious infections leading to hospitalization or death, including tuberculosis (TB), bacterial sepsis, invasive fungal infections (such as histoplasmosis), and infections due to other opportunistic pathogens. Discontinue adalimumab if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis during treatment. Perform test for latent TB; if positive, start treatment for TB prior to starting adalimumab. Monitor all patients for active TB during treatment, even if initial latent TB test is negative. MALIGNANCY (5.2): Lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported in children and adolescent patients treated with TNF blockers including adalimumab.

Post-marketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have occurred in adolescent and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease treated with TNF blockers including adalimumab.

Overview

Adalimumab is a Tumor Necrosis Factor Blocker that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Plaque Psoriasis. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include Injection site pain, Injection site reaction, Rash, Antibody development, to adalimumab ,Antinuclear antibody positive , Headache, Sinusitis, Upper respiratory infection.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Ankylosing Spondylitis

  • Dosing information
  • Recommended dosage: 40 mg administered every other week.

Crohn’s Disease

  • Dosing information
  • Recommended dosage:
  • Day 1: 160 mg (given as four 40 mg injections in one day or as two 40 mg injections per day for two consecutive days),
  • Day 15: 80 mg .
  • Day 29: 40 mg every other week.

Ulcerative Colitis

  • Dosing information
  • Recommended dosage:
  • Day 1: 160 mg (given as four 40 mg injections in one day or as two 40 mg injections per day for two consecutive days),
  • Day 15: 80 mg .
  • Day 29: 40 mg every other week.
  • Only continue adalimumab in patients who have shown evidence of clinical remission by eight weeks (Day 57) of therapy. Aminosalicylates and/or corticosteroids may be continued during treatment with adalimumab. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] may be continued during treatment with adalimumab if necessary.

Plaque Psoriasis

  • Dosing information
  • Recommended dosage: 80 mg, followed by 40 mg given every other week starting one week after the initial dose.
  • The use of adalimumab in moderate to severe chronic Ps beyond one year has not been evaluated in controlled clinical studies.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Adalimumab in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Adalimumab in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

  • Dosing information
  • Recommended dosage: of adalimumab for pediatric patients 4 to 17 years of age with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is based on weight as shown below. MTX, glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, and/or analgesics may be continued during treatment with adalimumab.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Limited data are available for adalimumab treatment in pediatric patients with a weight below 15 kg.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Adalimumab in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Adalimumab in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

None.

Warnings

WARNING: SERIOUS INFECTIONS AND MALIGNANCY
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
SERIOUS INFECTIONS (5.1, 6.1):

Increased risk of serious infections leading to hospitalization or death, including tuberculosis (TB), bacterial sepsis, invasive fungal infections (such as histoplasmosis), and infections due to other opportunistic pathogens. Discontinue adalimumab if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis during treatment. Perform test for latent TB; if positive, start treatment for TB prior to starting adalimumab. Monitor all patients for active TB during treatment, even if initial latent TB test is negative. MALIGNANCY (5.2): Lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported in children and adolescent patients treated with TNF blockers including adalimumab.

Post-marketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have occurred in adolescent and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease treated with TNF blockers including adalimumab.

Serious Infections

Patients treated with adalimumab are at increased risk for developing serious infections involving various organ systems and sites that may lead to hospitalization or death [see Boxed Warning]. Opportunistic infections due to bacterial, mycobacterial, invasive fungal, viral, parasitic, or other opportunistic pathogens including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, legionellosis, listeriosis, pneumocystosis and tuberculosis have been reported with TNF blockers. Patients have frequently presented with disseminated rather than localized disease. The concomitant use of a TNF blocker and abatacept or anakinra was associated with a higher risk of serious infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); therefore, the concomitant use of adalimumab and these biologic products is not recommended in the treatment of patients with RA. Treatment with adalimumab should not be initiated in patients with an active infection, including localized infections. Patients greater than 65 years of age, patients with co-morbid conditions and/or patients taking concomitant immunosuppressants (such as corticosteroids or methotrexate), may be at greater risk of infection. Consider the risks and benefits of treatment prior to initiating therapy in patients:

  • with chronic or recurrent infection;
  • who have been exposed to tuberculosis;
  • with a history of an opportunistic infection;
  • who have resided or traveled in areas of endemic tuberculosis or endemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, or blastomycosis; or
  • with underlying conditions that may predispose them to infection.

tuberculosis

Cases of reactivation of tuberculosis and new onset tuberculosis infections have been reported in patients receiving adalimumab, including patients who have previously received treatment for latent or active tuberculosis. Reports included cases of pulmonary and extrapulmonary (i.e., disseminated) tuberculosis. Evaluate patients for tuberculosis risk factors and test for latent infection prior to initiating adalimumab and periodically during therapy. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection prior to therapy with TNF blocking agents has been shown to reduce the risk of tuberculosis reactivation during therapy. Prior to initiating adalimumab, assess if treatment for latent tuberculosis is needed; and consider an induration of ≥ 5 mm a positive tuberculin skin test result, even for patients previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Consider anti-tuberculosis therapy prior to initiation of adalimumab in patients with a past history of latent or active tuberculosis in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed, and for patients with a negative test for latent tuberculosis but having risk factors for tuberculosis infection. Despite prophylactic treatment for tuberculosis, cases of reactivated tuberculosis have occurred in patients treated with adalimumab. Consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of tuberculosis is recommended to aid in the decision whether initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy is appropriate for an individual patient. Strongly consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis in patients who develop a new infection during adalimumab treatment, especially in patients who have previously or recently traveled to countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, or who have had close contact with a person with active tuberculosis.

Monitoring

Closely monitor patients for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with adalimumab, including the development of tuberculosis in patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis infection prior to initiating therapy. Tests for latent tuberculosis infection may also be falsely negative while on therapy with adalimumab. Discontinue adalimumab if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis. For a patient who develops a new infection during treatment with adalimumab, closely monitor them, perform a prompt and complete diagnostic workup appropriate for an immunocompromised patient, and initiate appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Invasive Fungal Infections

If patients develop a serious systemic illness and they reside or travel in regions where mycoses are endemic, consider invasive fungal infection in the differential diagnosis. Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. Consider appropriate empiric antifungal therapy, taking into account both the risk for severe fungal infection and the risks of antifungal therapy, while a diagnostic workup is being performed. To aid in the management of such patients, consider consultation with a physician with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infections.

Malignancies

Consider the risks and benefits of TNF-blocker treatment including adalimumab prior to initiating therapy in patients with a known malignancy other than a successfully treated non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or when considering continuing a TNF blocker in patients who develop a malignancy.

Malignancies in Adults

In the controlled portions of clinical trials of some TNF-blockers, including adalimumab, more cases of malignancies have been observed among TNF-blocker-treated adult patients compared to control-treated adult patients. During the controlled portions of 34 global adalimumab clinical trials in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and plaque psoriasis (Ps), malignancies, other than non-melanoma (basal cell and squamous cell) skin cancer, were observed at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 0.6 (0.38, 0.91) per 100 patient-years among 7304 adalimumab-treated patients versus a rate of 0.6 (0.30, 1.03) per 100 patient-years among 4232 control-treated patients (median duration of treatment of 4 months for adalimumab-treated patients and 4 months for control-treated patients). In 47 global controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials of adalimumab in adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC, and Ps, the most frequently observed malignancies, other than lymphoma and NMSC, were breast, colon, prostate, lung, and melanoma. The malignancies in adalimumab-treated patients in the controlled and uncontrolled portions of the studies were similar in type and number to what would be expected in the general U.S. population according to the SEER database (adjusted for age, gender, and race).1 In controlled trials of other TNF blockers in adult patients at higher risk for malignancies (i.e., patients with COPD with a significant smoking history and cyclophosphamide-treated patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis), a greater portion of malignancies occurred in the TNF blocker group compared to the control group.

Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

During the controlled portions of 34 global adalimumab clinical trials in adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC, and Ps, the rate (95% confidence interval) of NMSC was 0.7 (0.49, 1.08) per 100 patient-years among adalimumab-treated patients and 0.2 (0.08, 0.59) per 100 patient-years among control-treated patients. Examine all patients, and in particular patients with a medical history of prior prolonged immunosuppressant therapy or psoriasis patients with a history of PUVA treatment for the presence of NMSC prior to and during treatment with adalimumab.

Lymphoma and Leukemia

In the controlled portions of clinical trials of all the TNF-blockers in adults, more cases of lymphoma have been observed among TNF-blocker-treated patients compared to control-treated patients. In the controlled portions of 34 global adalimumab clinical trials in adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC and Ps, 3 lymphomas occurred among 7304 adalimumab-treated patients versus 1 among 4232 control-treated patients. In 47 global controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials of adalimumab in adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC and Ps with a median duration of approximately 0.6 years, including 23,036 patients and over 34,000 patient-years of adalimumab, the observed rate of lymphomas was approximately 0.11 per 100 patient-years. This is approximately 3-fold higher than expected in the general U.S. population according to the SEER database (adjusted for age, gender, and race).1 Rates of lymphoma in clinical trials of adalimumab cannot be compared to rates of lymphoma in clinical trials of other TNF blockers and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population. Patients with RA and other chronic inflammatory diseases, particularly those with highly active disease and/or chronic exposure to immunosuppressant therapies, may be at a higher risk (up to several fold) than the general population for the development of lymphoma, even in the absence of TNF blockers. Post-marketing cases of acute and chronic leukemia have been reported in association with TNF-blocker use in RA and other indications. Even in the absence of TNF-blocker therapy, patients with RA may be at a higher risk (approximately 2-fold) than the general population for the development of leukemia.

Malignancies in Pediatric Patients and Young Adults

Malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents, and young adults who received treatment with TNF-blockers (initiation of therapy ≤ 18 years of age), of which adalimumab is a member [see Boxed Warning]. Approximately half the cases were lymphomas, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The other cases represented a variety of different malignancies and included rare malignancies usually associated with immunosuppression and malignancies that are not usually observed in children and adolescents. The malignancies occurred after a median of 30 months of therapy (range 1 to 84 months). Most of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressants. These cases were reported post-marketing and are derived from a variety of sources including registries and spontaneous postmarketing reports. Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with TNF blockers including adalimumab [see Boxed Warning]. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. The majority of reported TNF blocker cases have occurred in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and the majority were in adolescent and young adult males. Almost all of these patients had received treatment with the immunosuppressants azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine (6–MP) concomitantly with a TNF blocker at or prior to diagnosis. It is uncertain whether the occurrence of HSTCL is related to use of a TNF blocker or a TNF blocker in combination with these other immunosuppressants. The potential risk with the combination of azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and adalimumab should be carefully considered.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Anaphylaxis and angioneurotic edema have been reported following adalimumab administration. If an anaphylactic or other serious allergic reaction occurs, immediately discontinue administration of adalimumab and institute appropriate therapy. In clinical trials of adalimumab in adults, allergic reactions (e.g., allergic rash, anaphylactoid reaction, fixed drug reaction, non-specified drug reaction, urticaria) have been observed.

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation

Use of TNF blockers, including adalimumab, may increase the risk of reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients who are chronic carriers of this virus. In some instances, HBV reactivation occurring in conjunction with TNF blocker therapy has been fatal. The majority of these reports have occurred in patients concomitantly receiving other medications that suppress the immune system, which may also contribute to HBV reactivation. Evaluate patients at risk for HBV infection for prior evidence of HBV infection before initiating TNF blocker therapy. Exercise caution in prescribing TNF blockers for patients identified as carriers of HBV. Adequate data are not available on the safety or efficacy of treating patients who are carriers of HBV with anti-viral therapy in conjunction with TNF blocker therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients who are carriers of HBV and require treatment with TNF blockers, closely monitor such patients for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV infection throughout therapy and for several months following termination of therapy. In patients who develop HBV reactivation, stop adalimumab and initiate effective anti-viral therapy with appropriate supportive treatment. The safety of resuming TNF blocker therapy after HBV reactivation is controlled is not known. Therefore, exercise caution when considering resumption of adalimumab therapy in this situation and monitor patients closely.

Neurologic Reactions

Use of TNF blocking agents, including adalimumab, has been associated with rare cases of new onset or exacerbation of clinical symptoms and/or radiographic evidence of central nervous system demyelinating disease, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and optic neuritis, and peripheral demyelinating disease, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. Exercise caution in considering the use of adalimumab in patients with preexisting or recent-onset central or peripheral nervous system demyelinating disorders.

Hematological Reactions

Rare reports of pancytopenia including aplastic anemia have been reported with TNF blocking agents. Adverse reactions of the hematologic system, including medically significant cytopenia (e.g., thrombocytopenia, leukopenia) have been infrequently reported with adalimumab. The causal relationship of these reports to adalimumab remains unclear. Advise all patients to seek immediate medical attention if they develop signs and symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasias or infection (e.g., persistent fever, bruising, bleeding, pallor) while on adalimumab. Consider discontinuation of adalimumab therapy in patients with confirmed significant hematologic abnormalities.

Use with anakinra

Concurrent use of anakinra (an interleukin-1 antagonist) and another TNF-blocker, was associated with a greater proportion of serious infections and neutropenia and no added benefit compared with the TNF-blocker alone in patients with RA. Therefore, the combination of adalimumab and anakinra is not recommended

Heart Failure

Cases of worsening congestive heart failure (CHF) and new onset CHF have been reported with TNF blockers. Cases of worsening CHF have also been observed with adalimumab. adalimumab has not been formally studied in patients with CHF; however, in clinical trials of another TNF blocker, a higher rate of serious CHF-related adverse reactions was observed. Exercise caution when using adalimumab in patients who have heart failure and monitor them carefully.

Autoimmunity

Treatment with adalimumab may result in the formation of autoantibodies and, rarely, in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. If a patient develops symptoms suggestive of a lupus-like syndrome following treatment with adalimumab, discontinue treatment

Immunizations

In a placebo-controlled clinical trial of patients with RA, no difference was detected in anti-pneumococcal antibody response between adalimumab and placebo treatment groups when the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and influenza vaccine were administered concurrently with adalimumab. Similar proportions of patients developed protective levels of anti-influenza antibodies between adalimumab and placebo treatment groups; however, titers in aggregate to influenza antigens were moderately lower in patients receiving adalimumab. The clinical significance of this is unknown. Patients on adalimumab may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines. No data are available on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines in patients receiving adalimumab. It is recommended that JIA patients, if possible, be brought up to date with all immunizations in agreement with current immunization guidelines prior to initiating adalimumab therapy. Patients on adalimumab may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines.

Use with abatacept

In controlled trials, the concurrent administration of TNF-blockers and abatacept was associated with a greater proportion of serious infections than the use of a TNF-blocker alone; the combination therapy, compared to the use of a TNF-blocker alone, has not demonstrated improved clinical benefit in the treatment of RA. Therefore, the combination of abatacept with TNF-blockers including adalimumab is not recommended

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying and controlled conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population in clinical practice. The most common adverse reaction with adalimumab was injection site reactions. In placebo-controlled trials, 20% of patients treated with adalimumab developed injection site reactions (erythema and/or itching, hemorrhage, pain or swelling), compared to 14% of patients receiving placebo. Most injection site reactions were described as mild and generally did not necessitate drug discontinuation. The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions during the double-blind, placebo-controlled portion of studies in patients with RA (i.e., Studies RA-I, RA-II, RA-III and RA-IV) was 7% for patients taking adalimumab and 4% for placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of adalimumab in these RA studies were clinical flare reaction (0.7%), rash (0.3%) and pneumonia (0.3%). Infections

In the controlled portions of the 34 global adalimumab clinical trials in adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC and Ps, the rate of serious infections was 4.6 per 100 patient-years in 7304 adalimumab-treated patients versus a rate of 3.1 per 100 patient-years in 4232 control-treated patients. Serious infections observed included pneumonia, septic arthritis, prosthetic and post-surgical infections, erysipelas, cellulitis, diverticulitis, and pyelonephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Tuberculosis and Opportunistic Infections

In 47 global controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials in RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC and Ps that included 23,036 adalimumab-treated patients, the rate of reported active tuberculosis was 0.22 per 100 patient-years and the rate of positive PPD conversion was 0.08 per 100 patient-years. In a subgroup of 9396 U.S. and Canadian adalimumab-treated patients, the rate of reported active TB was 0.07 per 100 patient-years and the rate of positive PPD conversion was 0.08 per 100 patient-years. These trials included reports of miliary, lymphatic, peritoneal, and pulmonary TB. Most of the TB cases occurred within the first eight months after initiation of therapy and may reflect recrudescence of latent disease. In these global clinical trials, cases of serious opportunistic infections have been reported at an overall rate of 0.08 per 100 patient-years. Some cases of serious opportunistic infections and TB have been fatal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Autoantibodies

In the rheumatoid arthritis controlled trials, 12% of patients treated with adalimumab and 7% of placebo-treated patients that had negative baseline ANA titers developed positive titers at week 24. Two patients out of 3046 treated with adalimumab developed clinical signs suggestive of new-onset lupus-like syndrome. The patients improved following discontinuation of therapy. No patients developed lupus nephritis or central nervous system symptoms. The impact of long-term treatment with adalimumab on the development of autoimmune diseases is unknown.

Liver Enzyme Elevations

There have been reports of severe hepatic reactions including acute liver failure in patients receiving TNF-blockers. In controlled Phase 3 trials of adalimumab (40 mg SC every other week) in patients with RA, PsA, and AS with control period duration ranging from 4 to 104 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 3.5% of adalimumab-treated patients and 1.5% of control-treated patients. Since many of these patients in these trials were also taking medications that cause liver enzyme elevations (e.g., NSAIDS, MTX), the relationship between adalimumab and the liver enzyme elevations is not clear. In controlled Phase 3 trials of adalimumab (initial doses of 160 mg and 80 mg, or 80 mg and 40 mg on Days 1 and 15, respectively, followed by 40 mg every other week) in patients with CD with control period duration ranging from 4 to 52 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 0.9% of adalimumab-treated patients and 0.9% of control-treated patients. In controlled Phase 3 trials of adalimumab (initial doses of 160 mg and 80 mg on Days 1 and 15 respectively, followed by 40 mg every other week) in patients with UC with control period duration ranging from 1 to 52 weeks, ALT elevations ≥3 x ULN occurred in 1.5% of adalimumab-treated patients and 1.0% of control-treated patients. In controlled Phase 3 trials of adalimumab (initial dose of 80 mg then 40 mg every other week) in patients with Ps with control period duration ranging from 12 to 24 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 1.8% of adalimumab-treated patients and 1.8% of control-treated patients.

Immunogenicity

Patients in Studies RA-I, RA-II, and RA-III were tested at multiple time points for antibodies to adalimumab during the 6- to 12-month period. Approximately 5% (58 of 1062) of adult RA patients receiving adalimumab developed low-titer antibodies to adalimumab at least once during treatment, which were neutralizing in vitro. Patients treated with concomitant methotrexate (MTX) had a lower rate of antibody development than patients on adalimumab monotherapy (1% versus 12%). No apparent correlation of antibody development to adverse reactions was observed. With monotherapy, patients receiving every other week dosing may develop antibodies more frequently than those receiving weekly dosing. In patients receiving the recommended dosage of 40 mg every other week as monotherapy, the ACR 20 response was lower among antibody-positive patients than among antibody-negative patients. The long-term immunogenicity of adalimumab is unknown. In patients with JIA, adalimumab antibodies were identified in 16% of adalimumab-treated patients. In patients receiving concomitant MTX, the incidence was 6% compared to 26% with adalimumab monotherapy. In patients with AS, the rate of development of antibodies to adalimumab in adalimumab-treated patients was comparable to patients with RA. In patients with PsA, the rate of antibody development in patients receiving adalimumab monotherapy was comparable to patients with RA; however, in patients receiving concomitant MTX the rate was 7% compared to 1% in RA. In patients with CD, the rate of antibody development was 3%. In patients with moderately to severely active UC, the rate of antibody development in patients receiving adalimumab was 5%. However, due to the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 ug/ml. Among the patients whose serum adalimumab levels were < 2 ug/ml (approximately 25% of total patients studied), the immunogenicity rate was 20.7%. In patients with Ps, the rate of antibody development with adalimumab monotherapy was 8%. However, due to the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 ug/ml. Among the patients whose serum adalimumab levels were < 2 ug/ml (approximately 40% of total patients studied), the immunogenicity rate was 20.7%. In Ps patients who were on adalimumab monotherapy and subsequently withdrawn from the treatment, the rate of antibodies to adalimumab after retreatment was similar to the rate observed prior to withdrawal. The data reflect the percentage of patients whose test results were considered positive for antibodies to adalimumab in an ELISA assay, and are highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay is highly dependent on several factors including assay sensitivity and specificity, assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to adalimumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Other Adverse Reactions
Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Studies

The data described below reflect exposure to adalimumab in 2468 patients, including 2073 exposed for 6 months, 1497 exposed for greater than one year and 1380 in adequate and well-controlled studies (Studies RA-I, RA-II, RA-III, and RA-IV). adalimumab was studied primarily in placebo-controlled trials and in long-term follow up studies for up to 36 months duration. The population had a mean age of 54 years, 77% were female, 91% were Caucasian and had moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis. Most patients received 40 mg adalimumab every other week. Table 1 summarizes reactions reported at a rate of at least 5% in patients treated with adalimumab 40 mg every other week compared to placebo and with an incidence higher than placebo. In Study RA-III, the types and frequencies of adverse reactions in the second year open-label extension were similar to those observed in the one-year double-blind portion.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Less Common Adverse Reactions in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Studies

Other infrequent serious adverse reactions that do not appear in the Warnings and Precautions or Adverse Reaction sections that occurred at an incidence of less than 5% in adalimumab-treated patients in RA studies were: Body As A Whole: Pain in extremity, pelvic pain, surgery, thorax pain
Cardiovascular System: Arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, chest pain, coronary artery disorder, heart arrest, hypertensive encephalopathy, myocardial infarct, palpitation, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, syncope, tachycardia
Digestive System: Cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic necrosis, vomiting
Endocrine System: Parathyroid disorder
Hemic And Lymphatic System: Agranulocytosis, polycythemia
Metabolic And Nutritional Disorders: Dehydration, healing abnormal, ketosis, paraproteinemia, peripheral edema
Musculo-Skeletal System: Arthritis, bone disorder, bone fracture (not spontaneous), bone necrosis, joint disorder, muscle cramps, myasthenia, pyogenic arthritis, synovitis, tendon disorder
Neoplasia: Adenoma
Nervous System: Confusion, paresthesia, subdural hematoma, tremor
Respiratory System: Asthma, bronchospasm, dyspnea, lung function decreased, pleural effusion
Special Senses: Cataract
Thrombosis: Thrombosis leg
Urogenital System: Cystitis, kidney calculus, menstrual disorder

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Clinical Studies

In general, the adverse reactions in the adalimumab-treated pediatric patients in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) trial were similar in frequency and type to those seen in adult patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5), Adverse Reactions (6)]. Important findings and differences from adults are discussed in the following paragraphs. adalimumab was studied in 171 pediatric patients, 4 to 17 years of age, with polyarticular JIA. Severe adverse reactions reported in the study included neutropenia, streptococcal pharyngitis, increased aminotransferases, herpes zoster, myositis, metrorrhagia, appendicitis. Serious infections were observed in 4% of patients within approximately 2 years of initiation of treatment with adalimumab and included cases of herpes simplex, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, pharyngitis, and herpes zoster. A total of 45% of children experienced an infection while receiving adalimumab with or without concomitant MTX in the first 16 weeks of treatment. The types of infections reported in adalimumab-treated patients were generally similar to those commonly seen in JIA patients who are not treated with TNF blockers. Upon initiation of treatment, the most common adverse reactions occurring in the pediatric population treated with adalimumab were injection site pain and injection site reaction (19% and 16%, respectively). A less commonly reported adverse event in children receiving adalimumab was granuloma annulare which did not lead to discontinuation of adalimumab treatment. In the first 48 weeks of treatment, non-serious hypersensitivity reactions were seen in approximately 6% of children and included primarily localized allergic hypersensitivity reactions and allergic rash. Isolated mild to moderate elevations of liver aminotransferases (ALT more common than AST) were observed in children with JIA exposed to adalimumab alone; liver enzyme test elevations were more frequent among those treated with the combination of adalimumab and MTX than those treated with adalimumab alone. In general, these elevations did not lead to discontinuation of adalimumab treatment. In the JIA trial, 10% of patients treated with adalimumab who had negative baseline anti-dsDNA antibodies developed positive titers after 48 weeks of treatment. No patient developed clinical signs of autoimmunity during the clinical trial. Approximately 15% of children treated with adalimumab developed mild-to-moderate elevations of creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Elevations exceeding 5 times the upper limit of normal were observed in several patients. CPK levels decreased or returned to normal in all patients. Most patients were able to continue adalimumab without interruption.

Psoriatic Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Clinical Studies

adalimumab has been studied in 395 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in two placebo-controlled trials and in an open label study and in 393 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in two placebo-controlled studies. The safety profile for patients with PsA and AS treated with adalimumab 40 mg every other week was similar to the safety profile seen in patients with RA, adalimumab Studies RA-I through IV.

Crohn’s Disease Clinical Studies

adalimumab has been studied in 1478 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) in four placebo-controlled and two open-label extension studies. The safety profile for patients with CD treated with adalimumab was similar to the safety profile seen in patients with RA.

Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Studies adalimumab has been studied in 1010 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in two placebo-controlled studies and one open-label extension study. The safety profile for patients with UC treated with adalimumab was similar to the safety profile seen in patients with RA.

Plaque Psoriasis Clinical Studies

adalimumab has been studied in 1696 patients with plaque psoriasis (Ps) in placebo-controlled and open-label extension studies. The safety profile for patients with Ps treated with adalimumab was similar to the safety profile seen in patients with RA with the following exceptions. In the placebo-controlled portions of the clinical trials in Ps patients, adalimumab-treated patients had a higher incidence of arthralgia when compared to controls (3% vs. 1%).

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of adalimumab. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to adalimumab exposure.

Gastrointestinal disorders: Diverticulitis, large bowel perforations including perforations associated with diverticulitis and appendiceal perforations associated with appendicitis, pancreatitis General disorders and administration site conditions: Pyrexia Hepato-biliary disorders: Liver failure, hepatitis Immune system disorders: Sarcoidosis Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps): Merkel Cell Carcinoma (neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin) Nervous system disorders: Demyelinating disorders (e.g., optic neuritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome), cerebrovascular accident Respiratory disorders: Interstitial lung disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary embolism Skin reactions: Stevens Johnson Syndrome, cutaneous vasculitis, erythema multiforme, new or worsening psoriasis (all sub-types including pustular and palmoplantar), alopecia Vascular disorders: Systemic vasculitis, deep vein thrombosis

Drug Interactions

Methotrexate

adalimumab has been studied in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX). Although MTX reduced the apparent adalimumab clearance, the data do not suggest the need for dose adjustment of either adalimumab or MTX [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Biological Products

In clinical studies in patients with RA, an increased risk of serious infections has been seen with the combination of TNF blockers with anakinra or abatacept, with no added benefit; therefore, use of adalimumab with abatacept or anakinra is not recommended in patients with RA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7 and 5.11)]. A higher rate of serious infections has also been observed in patients with RA treated with rituximab who received subsequent treatment with a TNF blocker. There is insufficient information regarding the concomitant use of adalimumab and other biologic products for the treatment of RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC, and Ps. Concomitant administration of adalimumab with other biologic DMARDS (e.g., anakinra and abatacept) or other TNF blockers is not recommended based upon the possible increased risk for infections and other potential pharmacological interactions.

Live Vaccines

Avoid the use of live vaccines with adalimumab [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].

Cytochrome P450 Substrates

The formation of CYP450 enzymes may be suppressed by increased levels of cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-6) during chronic inflammation. It is possible for a molecule that antagonizes cytokine activity, such as adalimumab, to influence the formation of CYP450 enzymes. Upon initiation or discontinuation of adalimumab in patients being treated with CYP450 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index, monitoring of the effect (e.g., warfarin) or drug concentration (e.g., cyclosporine or theophylline) is recommended and the individual dose of the drug product may be adjusted as needed.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): B

Risk Summary

Adequate and well controlled studies with adalimumab have not been conducted in pregnant women. Adalimumab is an IgG1 monoclonal antibody and IgG1 is actively transferred across the placenta during the third trimester of pregnancy. Adalimumab serum levels were obtained from ten women treated with adalimumab during pregnancy and eight newborn infants suggest active placental transfer of adalimumab. No fetal harm was observed in reproductive studies performed in cynomolgus monkeys. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Clinical Considerations

In general, monoclonal antibodies are transported across the placenta in a linear fashion as pregnancy progresses, with the largest amount transferred during the third trimester.

Human Data

In an independent clinical study conducted in ten pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease treated with adalimumab, adalimumab concentrations were measured in maternal blood as well as in cord (n=10) and infant blood (n=8) on the day of birth. The last dose of adalimumab was given between 1 and 56 days prior to delivery. Adalimumab concentrations were 0.16-19.7 µg/mL in cord blood, 4.28-17.7 µg/mL in infant blood, and 0-16.1 µg/mL in maternal blood. In all but one case, the cord blood level of adalimumab was higher than the maternal level, suggesting adalimumab actively crosses the placenta. In addition, one infant had levels at each of the following: 6 weeks (1.94 µg/mL), 7 weeks (1.31 µg/mL), 8 weeks (0.93 µg/mL), and 11 weeks (0.53 µg/mL), suggesting adalimumab can be detected in the serum of infants exposed in utero for at least 3 months from birth.

Animal Data

An embryo-fetal perinatal developmental toxicity study has been performed in cynomolgus monkeys at dosages up to 100 mg/kg (266 times human AUC when given 40 mg subcutaneously with methotrexate every week or 373 times human AUC when given 40 mg subcutaneously without methotrexate) and has revealed no evidence of harm to the fetuses due to adalimumab.
Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Adalimumab in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Adalimumab during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

Limited data from published literature indicate that adalimumab is present in low levels in human milk and is not likely to be absorbed by a breastfed infant. However, no data is available on the absorption of adalimumab from breastmilk in newborn or preterm infants. Caution should be exercised when adalimumab is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of adalimumab in pediatric patients for uses other than juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have not been established. Due to its inhibition of TNFα, adalimumab administered during pregnancy could affect immune response in the in utero-exposed newborn and infant. Data from eight infants exposed to adalimumab in utero, suggest adalimumab crosses the placenta. The clinical significance of elevated adalimumab levels in infants is unknown. The safety of administering live or live-attenuated vaccines in exposed infants is unknown. Risks and benefits should be considered prior to vaccinating (live or live-attenuated) exposed infants. Post-marketing cases of lymphoma, including hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents, and young adults who received treatment with TNF-blockers including adalimumab Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis In the JIA trial, adalimumab was shown to reduce signs and symptoms of active polyarticular JIA in patients 4 to 17 years of age . adalimumab has not been studied in children less than 4 years of age, and there are limited data on adalimumab treatment in children with weight <15 kg. The safety of adalimumab in pediatric patients in the JIA trial was generally similar to that observed in adults with certain exceptions

Geriatic Use

A total of 519 RA patients 65 years of age and older, including 107 patients 75 years of age and older, received adalimumab in clinical studies RA-I through IV. No overall difference in effectiveness was observed between these patients and younger patients. The frequency of serious infection and malignancy among adalimumab treated patients over 65 years of age was higher than for those under 65 years of age. Because there is a higher incidence of infections and malignancies in the elderly population, use caution when treating the elderly.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Adalimumab with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Adalimumab with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Adalimumab in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Adalimumab in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Adalimumab in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Adalimumab in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

adalimumab is administered by subcutaneous injection.

adalimumab is intended for use under the guidance and supervision of a physician. A patient may self-inject adalimumab if a physician determines that it is appropriate, and with medical follow-up, as necessary, after proper training in subcutaneous injection technique. Carefully inspect the solution in the adalimumab Pen or prefilled syringe for particulate matter and discoloration prior to subcutaneous administration. If particulates and discolorations are noted, do not use the product. adalimumab does not contain preservatives; therefore, discard unused portions of drug remaining from the syringe. NOTE: Instruct patients sensitive to latex not to handle the needle cover of the syringe because it contains dry rubber (latex). Instruct patients using the adalimumab Pen or prefilled syringe to inject the full amount in the syringe (0.8 mL), which provides 40 mg of adalimumab, according to the directions provided in the Instructions for Use [see Instructions for Use]. Instruct patients (15 kg to <30 kg) using the pediatric pre-filled syringe, or their caregivers, to inject the full amount in the syringe (0.4 mL), which provides 20 mg of adalimumab, according to the directions provided in the Instructions for Use. Rotate injection sites and do not give injections into areas where the skin is tender, bruised, red or hard. The adalimumab institutional use vial is for use and administration within an institutional setting only, such as a hospital, physician’s office or clinic. Withdraw the dose using a sterile needle and syringe and administer promptly by a healthcare provider within an institutional setting. Only administer one dose per vial. The vial does not contain preservatives; therefore, discard unused portions.

Monitoring

Prior to initiating adalimumab and periodically during therapy, evaluate patients for active tuberculosis and test for latent infection

IV Compatibility

There is limited information about the IV Compatibility.

Overdosage

Doses up to 10 mg/kg have been administered to patients in clinical trials without evidence of dose-limiting toxicities. In case of overdosage, it is recommended that the patient be monitored for any signs or symptoms of adverse reactions or effects and appropriate symptomatic treatment instituted immediately.

Pharmacology

Adalimumab structure.png
Adalimumab?
Therapeutic monoclonal antibody
Source u
Target TNF alpha
Identifiers
CAS number 331731-18-1
ATC code L04AB04
PubChem ?
DrugBank DB00051
Chemical data
Formula C6428H9912N1694O1987S46 
Mol. mass 144190.3 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 64% (subcutaneous), 0% (oral)
Metabolism ?
Half life 10–20 days.
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(AU) B(US)

Legal status

POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes Subcutaneous

Mechanism of Action

Adalimumab binds specifically to TNF-alpha and blocks its interaction with the p55 and p75 cell surface TNF receptors. Adalimumab also lyses surface TNF expressing cells in vitro in the presence of complement. Adalimumab does not bind or inactivate lymphotoxin (TNF-beta). TNF is a naturally occurring cytokine that is involved in normal inflammatory and immune responses. Elevated levels of TNF are found in the synovial fluid of patients with RA, JIA, PsA, and AS and play an important role in both the pathologic inflammation and the joint destruction that are hallmarks of these diseases. Increased levels of TNF are also found in psoriasis plaques. In Ps, treatment with adalimumab may reduce the epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The relationship between these pharmacodynamic activities and the mechanism(s) by which adalimumab exerts its clinical effects is unknown. Adalimumab also modulates biological responses that are induced or regulated by TNF, including changes in the levels of adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte migration (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 with an IC50 of 1-2 X 10-10M).

Structure

adalimumab (adalimumab) is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody specific for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF). adalimumab was created using phage display technology resulting in an antibody with human derived heavy and light chain variable regions and human IgG1:k constant regions. Adalimumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology in a mammalian cell expression system and is purified by a process that includes specific viral inactivation and removal steps. It consists of 1330 amino acids and has a molecular weight of approximately 148 kilodaltons. adalimumab is supplied as a sterile, preservative-free solution of adalimumab for subcutaneous administration. The drug product is supplied as either a single-use, prefilled pen (adalimumab Pen) or as a single-use, 1 mL prefilled glass syringe. Enclosed within the pen is a single-use, 1 mL prefilled glass syringe. The solution of adalimumab is clear and colorless, with a pH of about 5.2. Each prefilled syringe delivers 0.8 mL (40 mg) of drug product. Each 0.8 mL of adalimumab contains 40 mg adalimumab, 4.93 mg sodium chloride, 0.69 mg monobasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, 1.22 mg dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, 0.24 mg sodium citrate, 1.04 mg citric acid monohydrate, 9.6 mg mannitol, 0.8 mg polysorbate 80, and Water for Injection, USP. Sodium hydroxide added as necessary to adjust pH. Each pediatric prefilled syringe delivers 0.4 mL (20 mg) of drug product. Each 0.4 mL of adalimumab contains 20 mg adalimumab, 2.47 mg sodium chloride, 0.34 mg monobasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, 0.61 mg dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, 0.12 mg sodium citrate, 0.52 mg citric acid monohydrate, 4.8 mg mannitol, 0.4 mg polysorbate 80, and Water for Injection, USP. Sodium hydroxide added as necessary to adjust pH.

Pharmacodynamics

After treatment with adalimumab, a decrease in levels of acute phase reactants of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and serum cytokines (IL-6) was observed compared to baseline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A decrease in CRP levels was also observed in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3) that produce tissue remodeling responsible for cartilage destruction were also decreased after adalimumab administration.

Pharmacokinetics

The maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and the time to reach the maximum concentration (Tmax) were 4.7 ± 1.6 µg/mL and 131 ± 56 hours respectively, following a single 40 mg subcutaneous administration of adalimumab to healthy adult subjects. The average absolute bioavailability of adalimumab estimated from three studies following a single 40 mg subcutaneous dose was 64%. The pharmacokinetics of adalimumab were linear over the dose range of 0.5 to 10.0 mg/kg following a single intravenous dose. The single dose pharmacokinetics of adalimumab in RA patients were determined in several studies with intravenous doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 mg/kg. The distribution volume (Vss) ranged from 4.7 to 6.0 L. The systemic clearance of adalimumab is approximately 12 mL/hr. The mean terminal half-life was approximately 2 weeks, ranging from 10 to 20 days across studies. Adalimumab concentrations in the synovial fluid from five rheumatoid arthritis patients ranged from 31 to 96% of those in serum. In RA patients receiving 40 mg adalimumab every other week, adalimumab mean steady-state trough concentrations of approximately 5 µg/mL and 8 to 9 µg/mL, were observed without and with methotrexate (MTX), respectively. MTX reduced adalimumab apparent clearance after single and multiple dosing by 29% and 44% respectively, in patients with RA. Mean serum adalimumab trough levels at steady state increased approximately proportionally with dose following 20, 40, and 80 mg every other week and every week subcutaneous dosing. In long-term studies with dosing more than two years, there was no evidence of changes in clearance over time. Adalimumab mean steady-state trough concentrations were slightly higher in psoriatic arthritis patients treated with 40 mg adalimumab every other week (6 to 10 µg/mL and 8.5 to 12 µg/mL, without and with MTX, respectively) compared to the concentrations in RA patients treated with the same dose. The pharmacokinetics of adalimumab in patients with AS were similar to those in patients with RA. In patients with CD, the loading dose of 160 mg adalimumab on Week 0 followed by 80 mg adalimumab on Week 2 achieves mean serum adalimumab trough levels of approximately 12 µg/mL at Week 2 and Week 4. Mean steady-state trough levels of approximately 7 µg/mL were observed at Week 24 and Week 56 in CD patients after receiving a maintenance dose of 40 mg adalimumab every other week. In patients with UC, the loading dose of 160 mg adalimumab on Week 0 followed by 80 mg adalimumab on Week 2 achieves mean serum adalimumab trough levels of approximately 12 µg/mL at Week 2 and Week 4. Mean steady-state trough level of approximately 8 µg/mL was observed at Week 52 in UC patients after receiving a dose of 40 mg adalimumab every other week, and approximately 15 µg/mL at Week 52 in UC patients who increased to a dose of 40 mg adalimumab every week. In patients with Ps, the mean steady-state trough concentration was approximately 5 to 6 µg/mL during adalimumab 40 mg every other week monotherapy treatment. Population pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with RA revealed that there was a trend toward higher apparent clearance of adalimumab in the presence of anti-adalimumab antibodies, and lower clearance with increasing age in patients aged 40 to >75 years. Minor increases in apparent clearance were also predicted in RA patients receiving doses lower than the recommended dose and in RA patients with high rheumatoid factor or CRP concentrations. These increases are not likely to be clinically important. No gender-related pharmacokinetic differences were observed after correction for a patient’s body weight. Healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis displayed similar adalimumab pharmacokinetics. No pharmacokinetic data are available in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. In subjects with JIA (4 to 17 years of age), the mean steady-state trough serum adalimumab concentrations for subjects weighing <30 kg receiving 20 mg adalimumab subcutaneously every other week as monotherapy or with concomitant methotrexate were 6.8 µg/mL and 10.9 µg/mL, respectively. The mean steady-state trough serum adalimumab concentrations for subjects weighing ≥30 kg receiving 40 mg adalimumab subcutaneously every other week as monotherapy or with concomitant methotrexate were 6.6 µg/mL and 8.1 µg/mL, respectively.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies of adalimumab have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential or its effect on fertility. No clastogenic or mutagenic effects of adalimumab were observed in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test or the Salmonella-Escherichia coli (Ames) assay, respectively.

Clinical Studies

Rheumatoid Arthritis

The efficacy and safety of adalimumab were assessed in five randomized, double-blind studies in patients ≥18 years of age with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Patients had at least 6 swollen and 9 tender joints. adalimumab was administered subcutaneously in combination with methotrexate (MTX) (12.5 to 25 mg, Studies RA-I, RA-III and RA-V) or as monotherapy (Studies RA-II and RA-V) or with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (Study RA-IV). Study RA-I evaluated 271 patients who had failed therapy with at least one but no more than four DMARDs and had inadequate response to MTX. Doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg of adalimumab or placebo were given every other week for 24 weeks. Study RA-II evaluated 544 patients who had failed therapy with at least one DMARD. Doses of placebo, 20 or 40 mg of adalimumab were given as monotherapy every other week or weekly for 26 weeks. Study RA-III evaluated 619 patients who had an inadequate response to MTX. Patients received placebo, 40 mg of adalimumab every other week with placebo injections on alternate weeks, or 20 mg of adalimumab weekly for up to 52 weeks. Study RA-III had an additional primary endpoint at 52 weeks of inhibition of disease progression (as detected by X-ray results). Upon completion of the first 52 weeks, 457 patients enrolled in an open-label extension phase in which 40 mg of adalimumab was administered every other week for up to 5 years. Study RA-IV assessed safety in 636 patients who were either DMARD-naive or were permitted to remain on their pre-existing rheumatologic therapy provided that therapy was stable for a minimum of 28 days. Patients were randomized to 40 mg of adalimumab or placebo every other week for 24 weeks. Study RA-V evaluated 799 patients with moderately to severely active RA of less than 3 years duration who were ≥18 years old and MTX naïve. Patients were randomized to receive either MTX (optimized to 20 mg/week by week 8), adalimumab 40 mg every other week or adalimumab/MTX combination therapy for 104 weeks. Patients were evaluated for signs and symptoms, and for radiographic progression of joint damage. The median disease duration among patients enrolled in the study was 5 months. The median MTX dose achieved was 20 mg.

Clinical Response

The percent of adalimumab treated patients achieving ACR 20, 50 and 70 responses in Studies RA-II and III are shown in Table 2.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

The results of Study RA-I were similar to Study RA-III; patients receiving adalimumab 40 mg every other week in Study RA-I also achieved ACR 20, 50 and 70 response rates of 65%, 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to placebo responses of 13%, 7% and 3% respectively, at 6 months (p<0.01). The results of the components of the ACR response criteria for Studies RA-II and RA-III are shown in Table 3. ACR response rates and improvement in all components of ACR response were maintained to week 104. Over the 2 years in Study RA-III, 20% of adalimumab patients receiving 40 mg every other week (EOW) achieved a major clinical response, defined as maintenance of an ACR 70 response over a 6-month period. ACR responses were maintained in similar proportions of patients for up to 5 years with continuous adalimumab treatment in the open-label portion of Study RA-III.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

The time course of ACR 20 response for Study RA-III is shown in Figure 1. In Study RA-III, 85% of patients with ACR 20 responses at week 24 maintained the response at 52 weeks. The time course of ACR 20 response for Study RA-I and Study RA-II were similar.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

In Study RA-IV, 53% of patients treated with adalimumab 40 mg every other week plus standard of care had an ACR 20 response at week 24 compared to 35% on placebo plus standard of care (p<0.001). No unique adverse reactions related to the combination of adalimumab (adalimumab) and other DMARDs were observed. In Study RA-V with MTX naïve patients with recent onset RA, the combination treatment with adalimumab plus MTX led to greater percentages of patients achieving ACR responses than either MTX monotherapy or adalimumab monotherapy at Week 52 and responses were sustained at Week 104 (see Table 4).

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

At Week 52, all individual components of the ACR response criteria for Study RA-V improved in the adalimumab/MTX group and improvements were maintained to Week 104.

Radiographic Response

In Study RA-III, structural joint damage was assessed radiographically and expressed as change in Total Sharp Score (TSS) and its components, the erosion score and Joint Space Narrowing (JSN) score, at month 12 compared to baseline. At baseline, the median TSS was approximately 55 in the placebo and 40 mg every other week groups. The results are shown in Table 5. adalimumab/MTX treated patients demonstrated less radiographic progression than patients receiving MTX alone at 52 weeks.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

In the open-label extension of Study RA-III, 77% of the original patients treated with any dose of adalimumab were evaluated radiographically at 2 years. Patients maintained inhibition of structural damage, as measured by the TSS. Fifty-four percent had no progression of structural damage as defined by a change in the TSS of zero or less. Fifty-five percent (55%) of patients originally treated with 40 mg adalimumab every other week have been evaluated radiographically at 5 years. Patients had continued inhibition of structural damage with 50% showing no progression of structural damage defined by a change in the TSS of zero or less. In Study RA-V, structural joint damage was assessed as in Study RA-III. Greater inhibition of radiographic progression, as assessed by changes in TSS, erosion score and JSN was observed in the adalimumab/MTX combination group as compared to either the MTX or adalimumab monotherapy group at Week 52 as well as at Week 104 (see Table 6).

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Physical Function Response

In studies RA-I through IV, adalimumab showed significantly greater improvement than placebo in the disability index of Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-DI) from baseline to the end of study, and significantly greater improvement than placebo in the health-outcomes as assessed by The Short Form Health Survey (SF 36). Improvement was seen in both the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS). In Study RA-III, the mean (95% CI) improvement in HAQ-DI from baseline at week 52 was 0.60 (0.55, 0.65) for the adalimumab patients and 0.25 (0.17, 0.33) for placebo/MTX (p<0.001) patients. Sixty-three percent of adalimumab-treated patients achieved a 0.5 or greater improvement in HAQ-DI at week 52 in the double-blind portion of the study. Eighty-two percent of these patients maintained that improvement through week 104 and a similar proportion of patients maintained this response through week 260 (5 years) of open-label treatment. Mean improvement in the SF-36 was maintained through the end of measurement at week 156 (3 years). In Study RA-V, the HAQ-DI and the physical component of the SF-36 showed greater improvement (p<0.001) for the adalimumab/MTX combination therapy group versus either the MTX monotherapy or the adalimumab monotherapy group at Week 52, which was maintained through Week 104.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

The safety and efficacy of adalimumab were assessed in a multicenter, randomized, withdrawal, double-blind, parallel-group study in 171 children (4 to 17 years of age) with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In the study, the patients were stratified into two groups: MTX-treated or non-MTX-treated. All subjects had to show signs of active moderate or severe disease despite previous treatment with NSAIDs, analgesics, corticosteroids, or DMARDS. Subjects who received prior treatment with any biologic DMARDS were excluded from the study. The study included four phases: an open-label lead in phase (OL-LI; 16 weeks), a double-blind randomized withdrawal phase (DB; 32 weeks), an open-label extension phase (OLE-BSA; up to 136 weeks), and an open-label fixed dose phase (OLE-FD; 16 weeks). In the first three phases of the study, adalimumab was administered based on body surface area at a dose of 24 mg/m2 up to a maximum total body dose of 40 mg subcutaneously (SC) every other week. In the OLE-FD phase, the patients were treated with 20 mg of adalimumab SC every other week if their weight was less than 30 kg and with 40 mg of adalimumab SC every other week if their weight was 30 kg or greater. Patients remained on stable doses of NSAIDs and or prednisone (≤0.2 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/day maximum). Patients demonstrating a Pediatric ACR 30 response at the end of OL-LI phase were randomized into the double blind (DB) phase of the study and received either adalimumab or placebo every other week for 32 weeks or until disease flare. Disease flare was defined as a worsening of ≥30% from baseline in ≥3 of 6 Pediatric ACR core criteria, ≥2 active joints, and improvement of >30% in no more than 1 of the 6 criteria. After 32 weeks or at the time of disease flare during the DB phase, patients were treated in the open-label extension phase based on the BSA regimen (OLE-BSA), before converting to a fixed dose regimen based on body weight (OLE-FD phase).

Clinical Response

At the end of the 16-week OL-LI phase, 94% of the patients in the MTX stratum and 74% of the patients in the non-MTX stratum were Pediatric ACR 30 responders. In the DB phase significantly fewer patients who received adalimumab experienced disease flare compared to placebo, both without MTX (43% vs. 71%) and with MTX (37% vs. 65%). More patients treated with adalimumab continued to show pediatric ACR 30/50/70 responses at Week 48 compared to patients treated with placebo. Pediatric ACR responses were maintained for up to two years in the OLE phase in patients who received adalimumab throughout the study.

Psoriatic Arthritis

The safety and efficacy of adalimumab was assessed in two randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled studies in 413 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Upon completion of both studies, 383 patients enrolled in an open-label extension study, in which 40 mg adalimumab was administered every other week. Study PsA-I enrolled 313 adult patients with moderately to severely active PsA (>3 swollen and >3 tender joints) who had an inadequate response to NSAID therapy in one of the following forms: (1) distal interphalangeal (DIP) involvement (N=23); (2) polyarticular arthritis (absence of rheumatoid nodules and presence of plaque psoriasis) (N=210); (3) arthritis mutilans (N=1); (4) asymmetric PsA (N=77); or (5) AS-like (N=2). Patients on MTX therapy (158 of 313 patients) at enrollment (stable dose of ≤30 mg/week for >1 month) could continue MTX at the same dose. Doses of adalimumab 40 mg or placebo every other week were administered during the 24-week double-blind period of the study. Compared to placebo, treatment with adalimumab resulted in improvements in the measures of disease activity (see Tables 7 and 8). Among patients with PsA who received adalimumab, the clinical responses were apparent in some patients at the time of the first visit (two weeks) and were maintained up to 88 weeks in the ongoing open-label study. Similar responses were seen in patients with each of the subtypes of psoriatic arthritis, although few patients were enrolled with the arthritis mutilans and ankylosing spondylitis-like subtypes. Responses were similar in patients who were or were not receiving concomitant MTX therapy at baseline. Patients with psoriatic involvement of at least three percent body surface area (BSA) were evaluated for Psoriatic Area and Severity Index (PASI) responses. At 24 weeks, the proportions of patients achieving a 75% or 90% improvement in the PASI were 59% and 42% respectively, in the adalimumab group (N=69), compared to 1% and 0% respectively, in the placebo group (N=69) (p<0.001). PASI responses were apparent in some patients at the time of the first visit (two weeks). Responses were similar in patients who were or were not receiving concomitant MTX therapy at baseline.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Similar results were seen in an additional, 12-week study in 100 patients with moderate to severe psoriatic arthritis who had suboptimal response to DMARD therapy as manifested by ≥3 tender joints and ≥3 swollen joints at enrollment.

Radiographic Response

Radiographic changes were assessed in the PsA studies. Radiographs of hands, wrists, and feet were obtained at baseline and Week 24 during the double-blind period when patients were on adalimumab or placebo and at Week 48 when all patients were on open-label adalimumab. A modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS), which included distal interphalangeal joints (i.e., not identical to the TSS used for rheumatoid arthritis), was used by readers blinded to treatment group to assess the radiographs. adalimumab-treated patients demonstrated greater inhibition of radiographic progression compared to placebo-treated patients and this effect was maintained at 48 weeks (see Table 9).

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Physical Function Response

In Study PsA-I, physical function and disability were assessed using the HAQ Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the SF-36 Health Survey. Patients treated with 40 mg of adalimumab every other week showed greater improvement from baseline in the HAQ-DI score (mean decreases of 47% and 49% at Weeks 12 and 24 respectively) in comparison to placebo (mean decreases of 1% and 3% at Weeks 12 and 24 respectively). At Weeks 12 and 24, patients treated with adalimumab showed greater improvement from baseline in the SF-36 Physical Component Summary score compared to patients treated with placebo, and no worsening in the SF-36 Mental Component Summary score. Improvement in physical function based on the HAQ-DI was maintained for up to 84 weeks through the open-label portion of the study.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

The safety and efficacy of adalimumab 40 mg every other week was assessed in 315 adult patients in a randomized, 24 week double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who had an inadequate response to glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, analgesics, methotrexate or sulfasalazine. Active AS was defined as patients who fulfilled at least two of the following three criteria: (1) a Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) score ≥4 cm, (2) a visual analog score (VAS) for total back pain ≥ 40 mm, and (3) morning stiffness ≥ 1 hour. The blinded period was followed by an open-label period during which patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week subcutaneously for up to an additional 28 weeks. Improvement in measures of disease activity was first observed at Week 2 and maintained through 24 weeks as shown in Figure 2 and Table 10. Responses of patients with total spinal ankylosis (n=11) were similar to those without total ankylosis.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Physical Function Response

In Study PsA-I, physical function and disability were assessed using the HAQ Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the SF-36 Health Survey. Patients treated with 40 mg of adalimumab every other week showed greater improvement from baseline in the HAQ-DI score (mean decreases of 47% and 49% at Weeks 12 and 24 respectively) in comparison to placebo (mean decreases of 1% and 3% at Weeks 12 and 24 respectively). At Weeks 12 and 24, patients treated with adalimumab showed greater improvement from baseline in the SF-36 Physical Component Summary score compared to patients treated with placebo, and no worsening in the SF-36 Mental Component Summary score. Improvement in physical function based on the HAQ-DI was maintained for up to 84 weeks through the open-label portion of the study.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

The safety and efficacy of adalimumab 40 mg every other week was assessed in 315 adult patients in a randomized, 24 week double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who had an inadequate response to glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, analgesics, methotrexate or sulfasalazine. Active AS was defined as patients who fulfilled at least two of the following three criteria: (1) a Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) score ≥4 cm, (2) a visual analog score (VAS) for total back pain ≥ 40 mm, and (3) morning stiffness ≥ 1 hour. The blinded period was followed by an open-label period during which patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week subcutaneously for up to an additional 28 weeks. Improvement in measures of disease activity was first observed at Week 2 and maintained through 24 weeks as shown in Figure 2 and Table 10. Responses of patients with total spinal ankylosis (n=11) were similar to those without total ankylosis.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

At 12 weeks, the ASAS 20/50/70 responses were achieved by 58%, 38%, and 23%, respectively, of patients receiving adalimumab, compared to 21%, 10%, and 5% respectively, of patients receiving placebo (p <0.001). Similar responses were seen at Week 24 and were sustained in patients receiving open-label adalimumab for up to 52 weeks. A greater proportion of patients treated with adalimumab (22%) achieved a low level of disease activity at 24 weeks (defined as a value <20 [on a scale of 0 to 100 mm] in each of the four ASAS response parameters) compared to patients treated with placebo (6%).

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

A second randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 82 patients with ankylosing spondylitis showed similar results. Patients treated with adalimumab achieved improvement from baseline in the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL) score (-3.6 vs. -1.1) and in the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Physical Component Summary (PCS) score (7.4 vs. 1.9) compared to placebo-treated patients at Week 24.

Crohn’s Disease

The safety and efficacy of multiple doses of adalimumab were assessed in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease, CD, (Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≥ 220 and ≤ 450) in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Concomitant stable doses of aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and/or immunomodulatory agents were permitted, and 79% of patients continued to receive at least one of these medications. Induction of clinical remission (defined as CDAI < 150) was evaluated in two studies. In Study CD-I, 299 TNF-blocker naïve patients were randomized to one of four treatment groups: the placebo group received placebo at Weeks 0 and 2, the 160/80 group received 160 mg adalimumab at Week 0 and 80 mg at Week 2, the 80/40 group received 80 mg at Week 0 and 40 mg at Week 2, and the 40/20 group received 40 mg at Week 0 and 20 mg at Week 2. Clinical results were assessed at Week 4. In the second induction study, Study CD-II, 325 patients who had lost response to, or were intolerant to, previous infliximab therapy were randomized to receive either 160 mg adalimumab at Week 0 and 80 mg at Week 2, or placebo at Weeks 0 and 2. Clinical results were assessed at Week 4. Maintenance of clinical remission was evaluated in Study CD-III. In this study, 854 patients with active disease received open-label adalimumab, 80 mg at week 0 and 40 mg at Week 2. Patients were then randomized at Week 4 to 40 mg adalimumab every other week, 40 mg adalimumab every week, or placebo. The total study duration was 56 weeks. Patients in clinical response (decrease in CDAI ≥70) at Week 4 were stratified and analyzed separately from those not in clinical response at Week 4.

Induction of Clinical Remission

A greater percentage of the patients treated with 160/80 mg adalimumab achieved induction of clinical remission versus placebo at Week 4 regardless of whether the patients were TNF blocker naïve (CD-I), or had lost response to or were intolerant to infliximab (CD-II) (see Table 11).

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Maintenance of Clinical Remission

In Study CD-III at Week 4, 58% (499/854) of patients were in clinical response and were assessed in the primary analysis. At Weeks 26 and 56, greater proportions of patients who were in clinical response at Week 4 achieved clinical remission in the adalimumab 40 mg every other week maintenance group compared to patients in the placebo maintenance group (see Table 12). The group that received adalimumab therapy every week did not demonstrate significantly higher remission rates compared to the group that received adalimumab every other week.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Of those in response at Week 4 who attained remission during the study, patients in the adalimumab every other week group maintained remission for a longer time than patients in the placebo maintenance group. Among patients who were not in response by Week 12, therapy continued beyond 12 weeks did not result in significantly more responses.

Ulcerative Colitis

The safety and efficacy of adalimumab were assessed in adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (Mayo score 6 to 12 on a 12 point scale, with an endoscopy subscore of 2 to 3 on a scale of 0 to 3) despite concurrent or prior treatment with immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, or 6-MP in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies (Studies UC-I and UC-II). Both studies enrolled TNF-blocker naïve patients, but Study UC-II also allowed entry of patients who lost response to or were intolerant to TNF-blockers. Forty percent (40%) of patients enrolled in Study UC-II had previously used another TNF-blocker. Concomitant stable doses of aminosalicylates and immunosuppressants were permitted. In Studies UC-I and II, patients were receiving aminosalicylates (69%), corticosteroids (59%) and/or azathioprine or 6-MP (37%) at baseline. In both studies, 92% of patients received at least one of these medications. Induction of clinical remission (defined as Mayo score ≤ 2 with no individual subscores > 1) at Week 8 was evaluated in both studies. Clinical remission at Week 52 and sustained clinical remission (defined as clinical remission at both Weeks 8 and 52) were evaluated in Study UC-II. In Study UC-I, 390 TNF-blocker naïve patients were randomized to one of three treatment groups for the primary efficacy analysis. The placebo group received placebo at Weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. The 160/80 group received 160 mg adalimumab at Week 0 and 80 mg at Week 2, and the 80/40 group received 80 mg adalimumab at Week 0 and 40 mg at Week 2. After Week 2, patients in both adalimumab treatment groups received 40 mg every other week (eow). In Study UC-II, 518 patients were randomized to receive either adalimumab 160 mg at Week 0, 80 mg at Week 2, and 40 mg eow starting at Week 4 through Week 50, or placebo starting at Week 0 and eow through Week 50. Corticosteroid taper was permitted starting at Week 8. In both Studies UC-I and UC-II, a greater percentage of the patients treated with 160/80 mg of adalimumab compared to patients treated with placebo achieved induction of clinical remission. In Study UC-II, a greater percentage of the patients treated with 160/80 mg of adalimumab compared to patients treated with placebo achieved sustained clinical remission (clinical remission at both Weeks 8 and 52) (Table 13).

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

In Study UC-I, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical remission observed between the adalimumab 80/40 mg group and the placebo group at Week 8. In Study UC-II, 17.3% (43/248) in the adalimumab group were in clinical remission at Week 52 compared to 8.5% (21/246) in the placebo group (treatment difference: 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): [2.8%, 14.5%]; p<0.05). In the subgroup of patients in Study UC-II with prior TNF-blocker use, the treatment difference for induction of clinical remission appeared to be lower than that seen in the whole study population, and the treatment differences for sustained clinical remission and clinical remission at Week 52 appeared to be similar to those seen in the whole study population. The subgroup of patients with prior TNF-blocker use achieved induction of clinical remission at 9% (9/98) in the adalimumab group versus 7% (7/101) in the placebo group, and sustained clinical remission at 5% (5/98) in the adalimumab group versus 1% (1/101) in the placebo group. In the subgroup of patients with prior TNF-blocker use, 10% (10/98) were in clinical remission at Week 52 in the adalimumab group versus 3% (3/101) in the placebo group.

Plaque Psoriasis

The safety and efficacy of adalimumab were assessed in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 1696 adult patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis (Ps) who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Study Ps-I evaluated 1212 patients with chronic Ps with ≥10% body surface area (BSA) involvement, Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) of at least moderate disease severity, and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) ≥12 within three treatment periods. In period A, patients received placebo or adalimumab at an initial dose of 80 mg at Week 0 followed by a dose of 40 mg every other week starting at Week 1. After 16 weeks of therapy, patients who achieved at least a PASI 75 response at Week 16, defined as a PASI score improvement of at least 75% relative to baseline, entered period B and received open-label 40 mg adalimumab every other week. After 17 weeks of open label therapy, patients who maintained at least a PASI 75 response at Week 33 and were originally randomized to active therapy in period A were re-randomized in period C to receive 40 mg adalimumab every other week or placebo for an additional 19 weeks. Across all treatment groups the mean baseline PASI score was 19 and the baseline Physician’s Global Assessment score ranged from “moderate” (53%) to “severe” (41%) to “very severe” (6%). Study Ps-II evaluated 99 patients randomized to adalimumab and 48 patients randomized to placebo with chronic plaque psoriasis with ≥10% BSA involvement and PASI ≥12. Patients received placebo, or an initial dose of 80 mg adalimumab at Week 0 followed by 40 mg every other week starting at Week 1 for 16 weeks. Across all treatment groups the mean baseline PASI score was 21 and the baseline PGA score ranged from “moderate” (41%) to “severe” (51%) to “very severe” (8%). Studies Ps-I and II evaluated the proportion of patients who achieved “clear” or “minimal” disease on the 6-point PGA scale and the proportion of patients who achieved a reduction in PASI score of at least 75% (PASI 75) from baseline at Week 16 (see Table 14 and 15). Additionally, Study Ps-I evaluated the proportion of subjects who maintained a PGA of “clear” or “minimal” disease or a PASI 75 response after Week 33 and on or before Week 52.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Additionally, in Study Ps-I, subjects on adalimumab who maintained a PASI 75 were re-randomized to adalimumab (N = 250) or placebo (N = 240) at Week 33. After 52 weeks of treatment with adalimumab, more patients on adalimumab maintained efficacy when compared to subjects who were re-randomized to placebo based on maintenance of PGA of “clear” or “minimal” disease (68% vs. 28%) or a PASI 75 (79% vs. 43%). A total of 347 stable responders participated in a withdrawal and retreatment evaluation in an open-label extension study. Median time to relapse (decline to PGA “moderate” or worse) was approximately 5 months. During the withdrawal period, no subject experienced transformation to either pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis. A total of 178 subjects who relapsed re-initiated treatment with 80 mg of adalimumab, then 40 mg eow beginning at week 1. At week 16, 69% (123/178) of subjects had a response of PGA “clear” or “minimal”.

How Supplied

adalimumab® (adalimumab) is supplied as a preservative-free, sterile solution for subcutaneous administration. The following packaging configurations are available.

  • adalimumab Pen Carton

adalimumab is dispensed in a carton containing two alcohol preps and two dose trays. Each dose tray consists of a single-use pen, containing a 1 mL prefilled glass syringe with a fixed 27 gauge ½ inch needle, providing 40 mg (0.8 mL) of adalimumab. The NDC number is 0074-4339-02.

  • adalimumab Pen – Crohn's Disease/Ulcerative Colitis Starter Package

adalimumab is dispensed in a carton containing 6 alcohol preps and 6 dose trays (Crohn’s Disease/Ulcerative Colitis Starter Package). Each dose tray consists of a single-use pen, containing a 1 mL prefilled glass syringe with a fixed 27 gauge ½ inch needle, providing 40 mg (0.8 mL) of adalimumab. The NDC number is 0074-4339-06.

  • adalimumab Pen – Psoriasis Starter Package

adalimumab is dispensed in a carton containing 4 alcohol preps and 4 dose trays (Psoriasis Starter Package). Each dose tray consists of a single-use pen, containing a 1 mL prefilled glass syringe with a fixed 27 gauge ½ inch needle, providing 40 mg (0.8 mL) of adalimumab. The NDC number is 0074-4339-07.

  • Prefilled Syringe Carton – 40 mg

adalimumab is dispensed in a carton containing two alcohol preps and two dose trays. Each dose tray consists of a single-use, 1 mL prefilled glass syringe with a fixed 27 gauge ½ inch needle, providing 40 mg (0.8 mL) of adalimumab. The NDC number is 0074-3799-02.

  • Pediatric Prefilled Syringe Carton – 20 mg

adalimumab is supplied for pediatric use only in a carton containing two alcohol preps and two dose trays. Each dose tray consists of a single-use, 1 mL pre-filled glass syringe with a fixed 27 gauge ½ inch needle, providing 20 mg (0.4 mL) of adalimumab. The NDC number is 0074-9374-02.

  • Institutional Use Vial Carton – 40 mg

adalimumab is supplied for institutional use only in a carton containing a single-use, glass vial, providing 40 mg (0.8 mL) of adalimumab. The NDC number is 0074-3797-01.

Storage

Do not use beyond the expiration date on the container. adalimumab must be refrigerated at 36°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C). DO NOT FREEZE. Do not use if frozen even if it has been thawed. When traveling, store adalimumab in a cool carrier with an ice pack. Protect the prefilled syringe from exposure to light. Store in original carton until time of administration.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Adalimumab label 01.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Adalimumab label 02.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Adalimumab label 03.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Adalimumab label 04.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Adalimumab label 05.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Adalimumab label 06.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Adalimumab panel 01.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

Patient Counseling

Provide the adalimumab “Medication Guide” to patients or their caregivers, and provide them an opportunity to read it and ask questions prior to initiation of therapy and prior to each time the prescription is renewed. If patients develop signs and symptoms of infection, instruct them to seek medical evaluation immediately. Advise patients of the potential benefits and risks of adalimumab.

  • Infections

Inform patients that adalimumab may lower the ability of their immune system to fight infections. Instruct patients of the importance of contacting their doctor if they develop any symptoms of infection, including tuberculosis, invasive fungal infections, and reactivation of hepatitis B virus infections.

  • Malignancies

Counsel patients about the risk of malignancies while receiving adalimumab.

  • Allergic Reactions

Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms of severe allergic reactions. Advise latex-sensitive patients that the needle cap of the prefilled syringe contains latex.

  • Other Medical Conditions

Advise patients to report any signs of new or worsening medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, neurological disease, autoimmune disorders, or cytopenias. Advise patients to report any symptoms suggestive of a cytopenia such as bruising, bleeding, or persistent fever.

Instruction on Injection Technique

Inform patients that the first injection is to be performed under the supervision of a qualified health care professional. If a patient or caregiver is to administer adalimumab, instruct them in injection techniques and assess their ability to inject subcutaneously to ensure the proper administration of adalimumab [see Instructions for Use]. For patients who will use the adalimumab Pen, tell them that they:

  • Will hear a loud ‘click’ when the plum-colored activator button is pressed. The loud click means the start of the injection.
  • Must keep holding the adalimumab Pen against their squeezed, raised skin until all of the medicine is injected. This can take up to 10 seconds.
  • Will know that the injection has finished when the yellow marker fully appears in the window view and stops moving.

Instruct patients to dispose of their used needles and syringes or used Pen in a FDA-cleared sharps disposal container immediately after use. Instruct patients not to dispose of loose needles and syringes or Pen in their household trash. Instruct patients that if they do not have a FDA-cleared sharps disposal container, they may use a household container that is made of a heavy-duty plastic, can be closed with a tight-fitting and puncture-resistant lid without sharps being able to come out, upright and stable during use, leak-resistant, and properly labeled to warn of hazardous waste inside the container. Instruct patients that when their sharps disposal container is almost full, they will need to follow their community guidelines for the correct way to dispose of their sharps disposal container. Instruct patients that there may be state or local laws regarding disposal of used needles and syringes. Refer patients to the FDA’s website at http://www.fda.gov/safesharpsdisposal for more information about safe sharps disposal, and for specific information about sharps disposal in the state that they live in. Instruct patients not to dispose of their used sharps disposal container in their household trash unless their community guidelines permit this. Instruct patients not to recycle their used sharps disposal container.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Adalimumab interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

HUMIRA

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information about the look-alike drugs.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.









Linked-in.jpg