Acute liver failure causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]

Overview

The causes of acute liver failure can be categorized into viral, drugs and toxins, vascular, and metabolic. Common causes of acute liver failure include acetaminophen toxicity, viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E), alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune, sepsis, right heart failure, and idiopathic. Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the developed world and viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E) is most common in the developing world.

Causes

Common Causes

The common causes of acute liver failure are:[1][2][3][4][2][5]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Cardiomyopathy, Congestive heart failure, Heart surgery, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Hypotension, Myocarditis, Shock
Chemical / poisoning 8-Hyydroxyquinoline, Amanita phalloides, Amatoxins, Carbon tetrachloride, Ethanol, Gold, Gyromitrin, Iron compounds, Mushroom poisoning, Senecio, Toluene, Yellow phosphorous, Bacillus cereus , Cyanobacteria
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Abacavir, Acetaminophen, Acetaminophen and Oxycodone, Albendazole, Allopurinol, Amiodarone, Amitriptyline, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin-clavulanate, Anticonvulsants, Antituberculosis drugs, Aspirin, Atorvastatin, Bromfenac , Carbamazepine, Chaparral, Chelidonium, Ciprofloxacin, Comfrey, Cyclophosphamide, Dantrolene, Dapsone, diclofenac (patch), Didanosine, Dideoxyinosine, Disulfiram, Doxycycline, Efavirenz, Ephedra, Erlotinib, Erythromycin, Etodolac, Fluoroquinolones, Flutamide, Gemtuzumab, Gemtuzumab, Germander tea, Ginseng, Halothane, He Shou Wu, Hydroxychloroquine, Imipramine, Interferon beta, Isoflurane, Isoniazid, Ixabepilone, Kava kava, Ketoconazole, Labetalol, Leflunomide, Loratadine, Lovastatin, Ma Huang, MAO inhibitors, Meloxicam, Methotrexate, Methyldopa, Moxifloxacin, Niacin, Nevirapine, Nicotinic acid, Nitisinone, Nitrofurantoin, Nortriptyline, NSAIDs, Oral contraceptive pills , Pazopanib, Pemoline, Pennyroyal, Phenytoin, Propylthiouracil, Pyrazinamide, Regorafenib, Rifampin, Simvastatin, Skull cap, Statins, Sulfacetamide, Sulfasalazine, Suloctidil, Terbinafine, Tetracycline, Teucrium polium, Tolcapone, Tricyclic antidepressants, Troglitazone, Valproic acid, Ecstacy, Cocaine, Reye's syndrome
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Budd-Chiari syndrome, Cirrhosis, Hepatic arterial thrombosis, Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, Ischemic hepatitis, Portal vein thrombosis, Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, Liver tumor, Autoimmune hepatitis
Genetic Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 deficiency, Fructose intolerance, Galactosemia, Hemochromatosis, LCAT deficiency, Sickle cell disease, Tyrosinemia, Wilson's disease, HELLP syndrome
Hematologic Hemosiderosis, Hemochromatosis, Sickle cell disease, HELLP syndrome, Leukemia
Iatrogenic Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Hepatectomy, Reye's syndrome
Infectious Disease Adenovirus, Bacillus cereus , Cyanobacteria, Cytomegalovirus, Echovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Fasciola hepatica, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Herpes simplex, Leptospirosis, Non A non B hepatitis , Parainfluenza viruses, Parvovirus, Sepsis, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Viral hepatitis, Visceral leishmaniasis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Adult onset Still's disease
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Fatty acid oxidation pathway diseases, Hemochromatosis, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 deficiency, Fructose intolerance, Galactosemia, LCAT deficiency, Tyrosinemia, Wilson's disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP syndrome
Oncologic Leukemia, Liver tumor
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Abacavir, Acetaminophen, Allopurinol, Amiodarone, Amitriptyline, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin-clavulanate, Anticonvulsants, Antituberculosis drugs, Aspirin, Atorvastatin, Bromfenac , Carbamazepine, Chaparral, Chelidonium, Ciprofloxacin, Comfrey, Cyclophosphamide, Dantrolene, Dapsone, Didanosine, Dideoxyinosine, Disulfiram, Doxycycline, Efavirenz, Ephedra, Erlotinib, Erythromycin, Etodolac, Fluoroquinolones, Flutamide, Gemtuzumab, Gemtuzumab, Germander tea, Ginseng, Halothane, He Shou Wu, Imipramine, Interferon beta, Isoflurane, Isoniazid, Kava kava, Ketoconazole, Labetalol, Leflunomide, Lovastatin, Ma Huang, MAO inhibitors, Methotrexate, Methyldopa, Moxifloxacin, Nevirapine, Nicotinic acid, Nitisinone, Nitrofurantoin, Nortriptyline, NSAIDs, Oral contraceptive pills , Pazopanib, Pemoline, Pennyroyal, Phenytoin, Propylthiouracil, Pyrazinamide, Regorafenib, Rifampin, Simvastatin, Skull cap, Statins, Sulfasalazine, Suloctidil, Terbinafine, Tetracycline, Teucrium polium, Tolcapone, Tricyclic antidepressants, Troglitazone, Valproic acid, Ecstacy, Cocaine
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Asphyxia, Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Autoimmune hepatitis, Graft versus host disease
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Alcohol, Cocaine, Cryptogenic, Ecstacy, Heat stroke, Hyperthermia, Hypothermia

Causes in Alphabetical Order


References

  1. Ichai P, Samuel D (2008). "Etiology and prognosis of fulminant hepatitis in adults.". Liver Transpl. 14 Suppl 2: S67–79. PMID 18825677. doi:10.1002/lt.21612. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiødt FV, Larson A, Davern TJ, Han SH, McCashland TM, Shakil AO, Hay JE, Hynan L, Crippin JS, Blei AT, Samuel G, Reisch J, Lee WM (2002). "Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (12): 947–54. PMID 12484709. 
  3. Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH (2012). "Hepatitis E.". N Engl J Med. 367 (13): 1237–44. PMID 23013075. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1204512. 
  4. Wasley A, Fiore A, Bell BP (2006). "Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination.". Epidemiol Rev. 28: 101–11. PMID 16775039. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxj012. 
  5. Björnsson E, Olsson R (2005). "Outcome and prognostic markers in severe drug-induced liver disease.". Hepatology. 42 (2): 481–9. PMID 16025496. doi:10.1002/hep.20800. 

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