Acute liver failure causes
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Acute liver failure causes On the Web
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The causes of acute liver failure can be categorized into viral, drugs and toxins, vascular, and metabolic. Common causes of acute liver failure include acetaminophen toxicity, viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E), alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune, sepsis, right heart failure, and idiopathic. Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the developed world and viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E) is most common in the developing world.
- Acetaminophen overdose, the reason is usually suicidal intent. Additionally, the toxic threshold dose of acetaminophen decreases in some cases, such as in chronic alcoholics, diabetics, and while fasting. Drug-induced acute liver failure is the most common cause in the developed world. It is responsible for more than 50% of the cases of acute liver failure in the United States.
- Idiosyncratic reactions to medications such as tetracycline, troglitazone, antituberculosis drugs, and anti-epileptic drugs
- Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B and hepatitis E) are the most common. The incidence of acute liver failure in post-viral hepatitis has decreased due to the vaccination and improved sanitation in the developed world. However, it is still the most common cause in the developing world.
- Autoimmune hepatitis
- Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
- Reye syndrome
- Wilson's disease
- Idiopathic (without an obvious cause)
- Diseases of fatty acid oxidation pathways
- Parvovirus B19 infection
- Budd–Chiari syndrome
- Malignancy such as lymphomas
- HELP syndrome
Causes by Organ System
Causes in Alphabetical Order
- Ichai P, Samuel D (2008). "Etiology and prognosis of fulminant hepatitis in adults". Liver Transpl. 14 Suppl 2: S67–79. doi:10.1002/lt.21612. PMID 18825677.
- Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiødt FV, Larson A, Davern TJ, Han SH, McCashland TM, Shakil AO, Hay JE, Hynan L, Crippin JS, Blei AT, Samuel G, Reisch J, Lee WM (2002). "Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (12): 947–54. PMID 12484709.
- Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH (2012). "Hepatitis E." N Engl J Med. 367 (13): 1237–44. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1204512. PMID 23013075.
- Wasley A, Fiore A, Bell BP (2006). "Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination". Epidemiol Rev. 28: 101–11. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxj012. PMID 16775039.
- Björnsson E, Olsson R (2005). "Outcome and prognostic markers in severe drug-induced liver disease". Hepatology. 42 (2): 481–9. doi:10.1002/hep.20800. PMID 16025496.