Acoustic neuroma causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Simrat Sarai, M.D. [2]

Overview

Acoustic neuroma are the most common tumors of the cerebellopontine angle and responsible for 6-8% of all intracranial tumors, these evidence demonstrate the importance of how acoustic neuroma can develop. Numerous studies show the correlation between Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and acoustic neuroma and some contraversial causes such as: occupational noise and cellular telephones use. 

Causes

  • Neurofibromatosis type 2
    • Genetic studies have linked both sporadic and NF2-associated acoustic neuromas to a single gene, the NF2 gene, located on chromosome 22 band q11–13.1. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 is an autosomal dominant disease caused by loss of function mutations. Approximately half of the reported cases for NF2 represent new mutations for which no other affected family members can be identified. The NF2 gene has been postulated to represent a tumor suppressor gene because individuals affected with NF2 have schwannomas (neuromas) of other cranial, spinal, and cutaneous nerves; cranial and spinal meningiomas; and ependymomas and gliomas of the CNS. After identication of the gene, a number of groups have shown that patients with NF2 inherit a mutant NF2 allele and subsequently lose the remaining allele somatically during tumorigenesis.[1][2]
  • Childhood radiation
    • Childhood radiation exposure has been associated with an increased risk for developing several neoplasms, particularly benign and malignant thyroid tumors. The occurance of acoustic neuroma due to childhood radiation was unknown until a strongly evidence based cohort study demonstrate the association between acoustic neuromas and childhood radiation exposure. Following childhood radiation exposure, they appear after a long latency and continue to occur many decades afterward.[3]
  • Suspected causes
    • Cellular telephone use
      • Studies demonstrated that the use of cell phone for more than 10 years did not increase the risk of acoustic neuroma over the short term use and also, tumors did not occur more frequently on the side of the head on which the telephone was typically used. Furthermore there is not any correlation between the size of tumor and and the pattern of cell phone usage.[4]
    • Occupational noise exposure
      • A small number of prior epidemiologic studies of occupational noise exposure based on self-report have suggested an association with acoustic neuroma.[5] Contrary to those small studies, some more evidence based studies demonstrated that there is not any correlation between occupational noise exposure and increased risk for acoustic neuroma even after a long latency period .[6][7]

References

  1. Bradley Welling, D. (1998). "Clinical Manifestations of Mutations in the Neurofibrornatosis Type 2 Gene in Vestibular Schwannornas (Acoustic Neurornas)". The Lezyngoscope. 
  2. SUGHRUE, MICHAEL E. (2011). "Molecular biology of familial and sporadic vestibular schwannomas: implications for novel therapeutics". J Neurosurg. 114. 
  3. Schneider, Arthur B. (2007). "Acoustic neuromas following childhood radiation treatment for benign conditions of the head and neck". Neuro-Oncoly Oxford Journal. 
  4. Christensen, Helle Collatz2004. "Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma". American Journal of Epidemiology. 
  5. Preston-Martin,, S. (1989). "Noise trauma in the aetiology of acoustic neuromas in men in Los Angeles County, 1978-1985". Br. J. Cancer. 
  6. Edwards, Colin G. (2005). "Exposure to Loud Noise and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma". American Journal of Epidemiology. 163. 
  7. Edwards, Colin G. (2007). "Occupational Noise Exposure and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma". American Journal of Epidemiology. 166. 

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