ATG12

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
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Autophagy-related protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATG12 gene.[1][2]

Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation in which cytoplasmic components, including organelles, are enclosed in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. ATG12 is the human homolog of a yeast protein involved in autophagy (Mizushima et al., 1998).[supplied by OMIM][2]

Autophagy requires the covalent attachment of the protein Atg12 to ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugation system. The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate then promotes the conjugation of ATG8 to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine.[3]

Atg12 was found to be involved in apoptosis. This protein promotes apoptosis through an interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family.[4]

References

  1. Mizushima N, Sugita H, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y (Jan 1999). "A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy". J Biol Chem. 273 (51): 33889–33892. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.51.33889. PMID 9852036.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: ATG12 ATG12 autophagy related 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae)".
  3. J. Geng, and D. J. Klionsky, 'The Atg8 and Atg12 Ubiquitin-Like Conjugation Systems in Macroautophagy. 'Protein Modifications: Beyond the Usual Suspects' Review Series', EMBO Rep, 9 (2008), 859-64.
  4. A. D. Rubinstein, M. Eisenstein, Y. Ber, S. Bialik, and A. Kimchi, 'The Autophagy Protein Atg12 Associates with Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 Family Members to Promote Mitochondrial Apoptosis', Mol Cell, 44 (2011), 698-709

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