17-Hydroxypregnenolone

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17-Hydroxypregnenolone
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismAdrenalGonads
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
E number{{#property:P628}}
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Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H32O3
Molar mass332.48 g/mol
Melting point268 °C (514.4 °F)

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Overview

17-Hydroxypregnenolone (also 17-OH-pregnenolone and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone), is a C21 steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. This step is performed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) that is present in the adrenal and gonads. Peak levels are reached in humans at the end of puberty and then decline.[1] High levels are also achieved during pregnancy.

Prohormone

17-OH-pregnenolone is considered a prohormone in the formation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), itself a prohomone of the sex steroids.

This conversion is mediated by the enzyme 17,20 lyase . As such 17-OH-pregenolone represents an intermediary in the delta-5-pathway that leads from pregnenolone to DHEA. 17-hydroxypregneolone is also converted to 17-hydroxyprogesterone, a prohomone for glucocorticosteroids and androstenedione through the activity of 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

Neurohormone

There is some evidence that 17-OH-pregnenolone may have activity as a neurohormone.[2]

Clinical use

Measurements of 17-OH-pregnenolone are useful in the diagnosis of certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[3] In patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency 17-OH-pregnenolone is increased, while in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency levels are low to absent.

See also

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Additional images

References

  1. Hill M, Lukac D, Lapcik O, Sulcova J, Hampl R, Pouzar V, Starka L. Age relationships and sex differences in serum levels of pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone in healthy subjects. Clin Chem Lab Med. 1999 Apr;37(4):439-47. PMID 10369116
  2. Matsunaga M, Ukena K, Baulieu EE, Tsutsui K 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts by means of the dopaminergic system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004 Dec 7;101(49):17282-7. PMID 15569930
  3. Riepe FG, Mahler P, Sippell, Partsch CJ. Longitudinal Study of Plasma Pregnenolone and 17-Hydroxypregnenolone in Full-Term and Preterm Neonates at Birth and during the Early Neonatal Period. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2002) 87: 4301-4306 [1]




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