|Other names||Genetron 134a|
|Molar mass||102.03 g/mol|
|Density||0.00425 g/cm³, gas.|
-103.3°C (169.85 K)
-26.08°C (247.07 K)
|Solubility in water||Insoluble.|
|S-phrases||, , , .|
|Supplementary data page|
|n, εr, etc.|
Solid, liquid, gas
|Spectral data||UV, IR, NMR, MS|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Freon 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant without an ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). It has the formula CH2FCF3, and a boiling point of −26.6 °C (−15.9 °F).
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is an inert gas used primarily as a "high-temperature" refrigerant for domestic refrigeration and automobile air conditioners. Other uses include plastic foam blowing, as a cleaning solvent and as a propellant for the delivery of pharmaceuticals (e.g. bronchodilators), gas dusters, and in air driers, that is, for removing the moisture from compressed air. Moisture present in compressed air has a harmful effect on pneumatic systems. Tetrafluoroethane has also been used to cool computers in some overclocking attempts. It is also commonly used as a power source for airsoft airguns.
Recently, R-134a has been subject to use restrictions due to its theorized contribution to climate change. In the EU, it will be banned as from 2011 in all new cars, and California may prohibit the sale of canned HFC-134a to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of the air conditioner.
R-134a first appeared in the early 1990s as a replacement for Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), which has significant ozone depleting properties. R-134a has been atmospherically modeled for its impact on depleting ozone and as a contributor to global warming. Research suggests that over the past 10 years the concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has increased significantly in the Earth atmosphere, with a recent study revealing a doubling in atmospheric concentration between 2001-2004. It has insignificant ozone depletion potential (ozone layer), significant global warming potential (GWP100 = 1300) and negligible acidification potential (acid rain). 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is slowly converted to trifluoroacetic acid through a radical reaction in the upper atmosphere and leads to a detectable amount of several ng/L in acid rain.
Contact of tetrafluoroethane with flames or hot surfaces in excess of 250°C (482°F) may cause vapor decomposition and the emission of toxic gases including hydrogen fluoride and carbonyl halides. Tetrafluoroethane itself has an LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of subjects) in rats of 1,500 g/m³, making it relatively non-toxic. However, its gaseous form is denser than air, and will displace air in the lungs. This can result in asphyxiation if excessively inhaled.
Aerosol cans containing tetrafluoroethane, when inverted, become effective freeze sprays. Under pressure, tetrafluoroethane is compressed into a liquid, which upon vaporization absorbs a significant amount of thermal energy. As a result, it will greatly lower the temperature of any object it contacts as it evaporates. This can result in frostbite when contacting skin.
- European Directive 2006/40/EC relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles
- Early Action Measure California: Use ban of canned HFC-134a
- Franklin J (1993). "The Atmospheric Degradation and Impact of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluorethane (Hydrofluorocarbon 134a)". Chemosphere. 27: 1565–1601. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(93)90251-Y.
- "Greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin station - Annual report 2004 (TA-2110/2005)" (PDF). Norwegian Institute for Air Research. Retrieved 2006-01019.
- von Sydow L, Grimvall AB, Borén HB, Laniewski K, Nielsen AT (2000). "Natural Background Levels of Trifluoroacetate in Rain and Snow". Enviro Sci Technol. 34: 3115–3118. doi:10.1021/es9913683.
- Honeywell International (December 2005). "MSDS # GTRN-0047 For Genetron® 134aUV".
- Alexander D. J, Libretto S. E. (1995). "An overview of the toxicology of HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane)". Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 14: 715–20.
- G. E. Millward, E. Tschuikow-Roux (1972). "Kinetic analysis of the shock wave decomposition of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane". 76 (3): 292 – 298. doi:10.1021/j100647a002.
- International Chemical Safety Card 1281
- Honeywell Refrigerant Data and MSDSs
- MSDS at Oxford University
- Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 11 at inchem.org
- Quick Change R-134A MSDS
- Pressure temperature calculator
- The Coexisting Curve of the Refrigerant HFC 134a: Some Scaling Models